Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

standard explanation in the neo-Fregean tradition is, as we have seen, to declare the structure (sentence, representation) to be interpretable as a function or abstract procedure. It is exploration of this formulation that remains the question mark at the heart of all accounts of PS.

The remarks in this section would not survive even the level of analysis given to the authors discussed in the body of the chapter, though I hope they will in due course. The important thing is that research continues in AI on a PS theory of meaning, based on the basic insights of the field rather than being imported from outside.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been supported under the NATO Senior Scientists Program. The author is indebted to comments from, and conversations with, Jim Doran, Frank Brown, Doug Arnold, Barry Richards, Tony Rhodes, Ernest Gellner, John Watkins, Roger Schank, and Wendy Lehnert, though they are not, of course, responsible for anything in it.


REFERENCES

Bobrow D., & Winograd T. "An overview of KRL -- a knowledge representation language". Cognitive Science, 1977, 3-46.

Brown J. S., Collins A., & Harris G. "Artificial intelligence and learning strategies". In O'Neillf (Ed.), Learning strategies. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Charniak E. A brief for case. Castagnola, Switzerland: Semantics and Cognition Institute, 1975.f

Charniak E., Wilks Y. (Eds.). Computational semantics. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1976.f

Davies J., & Isard S. "Utterances as programs". In B. Meltzer & D. Mitchie (Eds.), Machinef intelligence 7. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1972.f

Fodor J. The language of thought. Hassocks: Harvester Press, 1977.f

Fodor J. "Tom Swift and his procedural grandmother". Cognition, 6 1978, 229-247.f

Fodor, J. Reply to Johnson-Laird. Cognition, 1979, 7201-205.f

Hayes P. J. "Some problems and non-problems in representation theory". Proc AISB Conference, University of Sussex, 1974.

Hintikka J. "Language games for quantifiers". In Logic, language-games and information. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

Johnson-Laird P. "Mental models of meaning". Sloan workshop mimeo paper, Philadelphia, 1977.

Johnson-Laird P. "Procedural semantics". Cognition, 5 1977, 189-214. (b)

Johnson-Laird P. "Psycholinguistics without linguistics". In N. S. Sutherland (Ed.), Tutorial essays in psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977. (c)

Johnson-Laird P. "What's wrong with Grandma's guide to procedural semantics". Cognition, 6 1978, 262-271.

Lewis D. "General semantics". In G. Harman & D. Davidson (Eds.), Semantics of natural language. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1972.

Longuet-Higgins, C. The algorithmic description of natural language. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond, 1972, 182,255-276.

McDermott D. "Artificial intelligence and natural stupidity". SIGART Bulletin, 1976, No. 57., pp 4-10.

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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