Hungarian propaganda between the two world wars, although largely officially inspired, was not under complete government control. The most universal interwar propaganda themes in Hungary were opposition to the Trianon Peace Treaty ( June 4, 1920), under the terms of which Hungary lost about 63.5 per cent of its prewar population and 71.4 per cent of its territory; accusations that the Hungarian minority populations in the successor states ( Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia) were being persecuted, and disavowals of outside protestations that Hungary was treating its national minorities unjustly. A typical indication of government encouragement of such propaganda was its sanction on the play-on-words interpretation of Trianon as the "three noes"; virtually all Hungarian children, for example, had to express organized opposition to the 1920 treaty by shouting "nem, nem, soha" (No, No, Never) at the beginning of each school day.
The principal domestic propaganda medium in Hungary (until the end of World War II) was the press. Hungarian propaganda abroad was conducted chiefly through periodicals and other publications. Educational and cultural exchanges were also designed to arouse favorable interest in and sympathy toward Hungary. Radio was the second most important domestic medium, the primary broadcast targets across the borders being the Hungarian minorities in neighboring states.
Because of Hungary's size, virtually all important newspapers were published in Budapest; the larger towns and communities had their own newspapers, but none were of political importance, with the possible exception of Ellenzek (Opposition) of Kolozsvar (now Cluj). Even during the identification of Hungary's interests with the Axis (until the German occupation on March 20, 1944), the Hungarian press was the most diverse and interesting in southeastern Europe and