was incapacitated by a stroke, and although he did not die until 2 July 1914 his political career was finished.
Joseph Chamberlain certainly left his mark on British politics in both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He was a social reformer in both Birmingham and government, drawn in by his interest in education, and an immensely talented and ambitious politician. He was also a destroyer of political parties: he helped to divide the Liberal Party in 1886 and the Conservative/Unionist alliance between 1903 and 1906. As he emerged as a politician he became the archetypal Social Imperialist, with a powerful political base (in Birmingham) which could not easily be defied. However, his great talents and abilities were wasted as his commitment to specific political causes—Unionism and Protectionism—meant that he never reached the political heights to which he seemed destined to rise.
See also: Balfour, Chamberlain (Neville), Churchill
Amery, J.L., 1951-69, The Life and Times of Joseph Chamberlain, vols 4-6, London: Macmillan.
Fraser, P., 1966, Joseph Chamberlain: Radicalism and Empire 1868-1914, London: Cassell.
Garvin, J.L., 1933-5, The Life and Times of Joseph Chamberlain, vols 1-3, London: Macmillan.
Jay, R., 1981, Joseph Chamberlain: A Political Study, Oxford: Clarendon.
Laybourn, K., 1995, The Evolution of British Social Policy and the Welfare Statec.1800-1993, Keele: Ryburn Publishing, Keele University Press.
Marsh, P.T., 1994, Joseph Chamberlain: Entrepreneur in Politics, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
(ARTHUR) NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN 1869-1940
Neville Chamberlain was one of the most controversial of Britain’s Prime Ministers, being closely associated with the attempt to secure peace in Europe through the ‘appeasement’ of the European dictators, the climax of which was reached at the Munich Conference in September 1938. He was Prime Minister for three years between 1937 and 1940 but, with the failure of appeasement, was removed in 1940 by a backbench revolt. Subsequently, he was dubbed by Michael Foot, and other writers, as one of ‘the Guilty Men’ who had led Britain into war because of his failure to confront Hitler. There have, however, been attempts recently to rebut this charge, to revive Chamberlain’s reputation and to understand his actions. Indeed, his life has become