As we showed in Part 1 of this book the formal diagnostic criteria for AD/HD (APA, 1994) identify three main sub-types of AD/HD. In this chapter we propose our own wider list of sub-types. It is important to stress that these typings are not based on a controlled study of the population of children with AD/HD, rather they are based on first-hand experience of working with students with the diagnosis in a school setting. This means that they are based largely on the range of students who happen to have been encountered by one of the authors (FO) in a career spanning some 15 years, much of it working specifically with students diagnosed with AD/HD. It should be stressed that these typings are not wholly original, and overlap in some respects with those proposed by other authors (e.g. Kewley, 1999; Barkley, 1990). Unlike other sub-typings, however, they are presented specifically from an educator’s perspective. We hope that the value of this approach is that it provides fellow professionals with concrete examples, couched in the language of teaching, that they will be able to relate to their experience. In the following chapters each of these sub-types will be elaborated in the form of individual case studies.
This is the oppositional angry student who seems to have given up caring in the belief that the whole world is against them. This student has become enveloped in a progressively thickening cocoon of defiance which acts as a defensive barrier against outside forces, particularly parents and teachers. This pattern sometimes begins to develop in the later years of the primary phase, and is most common in the adolescent years. It is marked by argumentativeness, verbal aggression and a tendency to react in an ‘over the top’ manner to what others see as minor issues.
This student’s defensive wall makes the vulnerable person within not only difficult to help, but difficult to see. It is so easy to come into conflict with this person that the