Shock Waves: Eastern Europe after the Revolutions

By John Feffer | Go to book overview

Chapter 3
From above and below

I would rather bark like a dog than speak the language of the foreigners. 1

—Czech noble

Stalin lived, imposed his model on Eastern Europe, then died. Revolution broke out in Hungary in 1956, in Czechoslovakia in 1968, and in Poland in 1980. Then came Gorbachev. Finally a new era dawned in 1989, people awoke as if from a dream, the Wall fell, and the Stalinist model finally crumbled in its entirety. Voila, the Cold War in fast forward.

This condensed version of the last 45 years in Eastern Europe does not, needless to say, capture the ebb and flow of reform and revolution in the region. Spanning the Cold War gap between Stalin and Gorbachev, numerous top-down restructurings and popular uprisings from below chipped away at the communist system of one-party rule, centralized planning, and security police surveillance. By 1989, Stalin's model had been hollowed out by his communist successors and non-communist detractors alike.

This hollowness was often referred to, in the lingo of specialists, as a "legitimation crisis": the communist rulers could not ultimately fulfill the expectations generated by their own propaganda. 2 No longer reliant solely on the raw repressions of the Stalinist period, such governments sought political legitimacy through rigged elections, economic stability through high growth and external borrowing, and social support through egalitarian rhetoric. Whatever the legitimacy gained initially by these policies, communist governments gradually drifted toward crisis, attempting to fine tune from above when protest erupted from below. The events of 1989 did not come from nowhere. Both the Gorbachev- style reformers and the successful oppositionists had their forebears. Although tensions had long been waxing and waning, emphasis in the 1980s was clearly on the wax rather than the wane. The Soviet model—a distinctly foreign tongue to many in the region—was to be a short-lived lingua franca.

-49-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Shock Waves: Eastern Europe after the Revolutions
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 350

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.