A Social History of Anthropology in the United States

By Thomas C. Patterson | Go to book overview

Notes
1
This was not the only source of tension between Putnam and the Washington scientists. Thomas C. Chamberlin (1843–1928), former Survey geologist, was partly responsible for the marginalization of Putnam at the Columbian Exposition. Chamberlin argued that his former colleagues at the Survey - Charles D. Walcott (1850–1927) in geology and William Henry Holmes (1846–1933) in anthropology - were ideally suited to lead a scientific complex centered around the museum that was being planned and the University of Chicago (Hinsley and Holm 1976:311; McVicker 1990, 1999). A second source of tension resulted from an attack on the views of Putnam's friend and amateur archaeologist, Reverend George F. Wright (1838–1921). Putnam and Wright believed that people had lived in the Americas during the Ice Age. In 1892, Bureau anthropologist William J. McGee (1853–1912), Holmes at the National Museum, and Chamberlin used professionalization and the language of science to attack Wright's (1892) Man and the Glacial Period, which claimed that the Geological Survey had misinterpreted the geological evidence for glaciation in North America and that the stone implements found in glacial gravels in Ohio and New Jersey were conclusive evidence for the existence of glacial man in North America (Hinsley 1976:4651).
2
Brinton was only marginally involved in the development of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Paleontology which was established in 1889 (Darnell 1970, 1976). The driving forces behind the Museum in the 1890s were William Pepper (1843–98), paleontologist and provost of the university, and Sara Stevenson (1847–1921), curator of the Egyptian and Mediterranean archaeology section. The other curators and staff members of the museum were Edward Cope, the paleontologist; Charles C. Abbott (18431919) who claimed to have found traces of Ice Age man in the Trenton Gravels; Babylonian archaeologist Hermann Hilprecht (1859–1925); Near Eastern philologist Morris Jastrow (1861–1921); and ethnologist Stewart Culin (1858–1929). With the financial support of Phoebe Hearst and others, Pepper and Stevenson organized and sent archaeological expeditions to Nippur, Egypt, and Peru in the decade following its incorporation. When the term paleontology was dropped from the museum's name in 1899, it signaled a “shift away from studying human beings in the context of natural history and toward developing a new ‘natural history of civilization’” (Conn 1998:85, 82–95).
3
Powell, Putnam, and Brinton did not read Frederick Engels's (1820–95) The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State: In Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (1884/1972). Engels focused on the differences between primitive society and civilization with its social class-structures and political organization. He argued that private possession of the means of production

-66-

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A Social History of Anthropology in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Anthropology in the New Republic, 1776–1879 7
  • Notes 34
  • 2 - Anthropology in the Liberal Age, 1879–1929 35
  • Notes 66
  • 3 - Anthropology and the Search for Social Order 1929–1945 71
  • Notes *
  • 4 - Anthropology in the Postwar Era, 1945–1973 103
  • Notes *
  • 5 - Anthropology in the Neoliberal Era, 1974–2000 135
  • Notes *
  • Bibliography 165
  • Index 207
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