Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges

By Amin Saikal; Albrecht Schnabel | Go to book overview

Notes
1
For an estimate of the human and material costs of the various armed interstate and intrastate conflicts in the Middle East between 1948 and 1992, see Saad Eddin Ibrahim, “Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: An Overview,” in Baghat Korany, Rex Brynen, and Paul Noble, eds., Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical Perspectives,Boulder,CO:LynneRienner, 1995, p. 35, Table 2.1.
2
See the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Arab Human Development Report 2002, New York: UNDP, 2002, for a strong call for Arab societies to further human development through, among others, education, economic growth, poverty reduction, democratization, and regional cooperation.
3
For previous studies on prospects for, trends in, and obstacles to democratization in the Middle East, see the two-volume series edited by Baghat Korany, Rex Brynen, and Paul Noble, Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical Perspectives,and Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Comparative Experiences, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
4
Although democratic peace theory is mentioned by a number of contributions to this volume, and discussed more prominently in chapter 3, the volume will deal only marginally with it. For democratic peace theory to be tested in a regional context, a minimum of two (and preferably more) established democracies would be required before a meaningful examination of the results of the propositions of the theory is possible. This is not currently the case in the Middle East.
5
See UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 2002, particularly chapter 7 on “Liberating Human Capabilities: Governance, Human Development and the Arab World,” pp. 105–20.
6
eila Sharaf, as quoted in UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 2002,p. 115.
7
UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 2002,p. 106.
8
For some seminal writings on the processes of democratization, see Robert A. Dahl, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971; Guillermo O'Donnell, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead, eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986; Robert A. Dahl, Democracy and Its Critics, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989; Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Politics in Developing Countries: Comparing Experiences with Democracy,Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1990; Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991; Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996; and Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. For a very recent discussion, see Journal of Democracy,vol.13, no. 3, July 2002, on the theme of “Debating the Transition Paradigm.”
9
Philippe C. Schmitter, “Some Basic Assumptions about the Consolidation of Democracy,” in Takashi Inoguchi, Edward Newman, and John Keane, eds., The Changing Nature of Democracy, Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1998, p. 32. The Changing Nature of Democracy was the first book in a series of studies on democracy and democratization undertaken by the United Nations University. The present book is part of this series.
10
Ibid.
11
On this discussion, see, for instance, Rudolph J. Rummel, “Democracies Don't Fight Democracies,” available at http://www.peacemagazine.org/9905/rummel.htm; Miriam

-21-

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