Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges

By Amin Saikal; Albrecht Schnabel | Go to book overview

Notes
1
For details, see Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, edited and abridged by Richard D. Heffner, New York: Mentor, 1956.
2
Anthony Arblaster, Democracy, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1987, p. 8.
3
For a discussion of different models of democracy, see David Held, “Democracy: From City-States to a Cosmopolitan Order,” Political Studies, vol. 40 (special issue), 1992, pp. 10–39.
4
Amin Saikal, The Rise and Fall of the Shah, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980, Ch. 8.
5
For details, see Said Amir Arjomand, The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988, esp. ch. 8; Amin Saikal, “Khomeini's Iran,” Current Affairs Bulletin, vol. 60, no. 5, October 1983, pp. 18–30.
6
For a critical assessment of the Islamic regime, see Martin Wright, Iran: The Khomeini Revolution, London: Longman, 1989, esp. pp. 31–42; Hazhir Teimourian, “Iran's 15 Years of Islam,” The World Today, vol. 50, no. 4, April 1994, pp. 67–70; Darius M. Rejali, Torture & Modernity: Self, Society, and State in Modern Iran,Boulder,CO: Westview Press, 1994, esp. chs. 7–8.
7
For a detailed discussion of the concept of jihad in Islam, see John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, ch. 2.
8
For a discussion and different meanings of the concept, see Joseph Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979; Wael B. Hallaq, “Was theGateof Ijtihad Closed,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 16, 1984, pp. 3–41; Bernard G. Weiss, “Interpretation in Islamic Law: The Theory of Ijtihad,” American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 26, Spring 1978, pp. 199–212.
9
For a discussion of Soroush's ideas, see Valla Vakili, Debating Religion and Politics in Iran: The Political Thought of Abdulkarim Soroush, Occasional Paper Series no. 2, New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1996.
10
Mohammad Khatami, Dialogue and the New Millennium, Address delivered to the 30th General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Paris, 29 October 1999, p. 2.
11
Mohammad Khatami, Islam, Dialogue and Civil Society, Canberra: Australian National University, Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies, 2000, p. 111.
12
“Statement by H.E. Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Chairman of the Eighth Session of the Islamic Summit Conference, Tehran, 9 December 1997,” Iranian Journal of International Affairs, vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1997/98, p. 601.
13
Ibid., p. 603.
14
Khatami, Islam, Dialogue and Civil Society, pp. 53–54.
15
Ruhollah Khomeini, Sahifey-e Noor [The Book of Light], Tehran: Markaz-e Madarek Anghlab-e Islami, vol. 21, 1990, p. 47.
16
Khatami, Islam, Dialogue and Civil Society,p.57.
17
Ibid., p. 104.
18
Ibid., p. 85.
19
Ibid., p. 90.
20
John. F. Burns, “Former Hanging Judge of Iran,” New York Times, 23 October 1999.
21
For details, see Ofra Bengio, “The Challenge to the Territorial Integrity of Iraq,” Survival, Summer 1995, pp. 74–94.
22
George Joffe, “Iraq's Strategic Role,” Middle East, May 1993, pp. 221–4.
23
For an example of the debate, see the special issue of the Middle East Journal,vol.47, no. 2, Spring 1993.

-182-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 211

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.