|of ancient walls and inscriptions from the ancient Afilae. A road descends from Affile to join the road from Guarcino, which farther on joins in its turn the highroad (p. 485) to Subiaco.|
That part of the Roman Campagna which extends to the N. from the Tiber to the Ciminian Forest (p. 115) and the mountains of Tolfa (p. 9) was the Southern Etruria of antiquity. It is composed of volcanic tufa and is furrowed by deep ravines. Originally occupied by a tribe akin to the Latins, then conquered by the Etruscans, it was finally, after the protracted contests with which the first centuries of the annals of Rome abound, reconquered and Latinized. The fall of the mighty Veii, 396 B.C., mainly contributed to effect this memorable change. Excursions are frequently made to the remains of the Etruscan tombs at Cerveteri and Veii. Malaria is unfortunately very prevalent throughout this whole district. Corneto (p. 6), Galera, Bracciano, etc., may be reached by the Viterbo railway (pp. 118-115) or by the tramway to Civita Castellana (p. 431).
The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, by George Dennis ( 1848; 2nd ed., 2 vols., London, 1878; also cheap issue of 1st ed., 2 vols., London, 1907, 2s.) and Tour to the Sepulchres of Etruria, by Mrs. Hamilton Gray ( 1843) are amongst the most useful books on Etruria.
An excursion to Veii takes one day. Provisions should be brought, as no good inns are passed. The site of Veii is picturesque and interesting, but the ruins are scanty.
Railway from Rome (Trastevere) to (11¾ M.) La Storta- Formello (p. 118; Osteria della Stazione) in 34 min. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c., 1 fr., return-tickets 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 50 c.). — From the road leading to Bracciano (p. 117) a footpath diverges on the right, immediately beyond the old posting-station of La Storta, and brings us in ½ hr. to the humble hamlet of Isola Farnese, commanded by a mediæval castle of the Rospigliosi. The carriage-road is ¾ M. longer. About ½ M. beyond La Storta the Via Clodia diverges to the left for Bracciano (p. 117). We remain, however, on the Via Cassia, to the right (leading to Sutri, p. 116). About 500 yds. farther on we take the turning to the right to Isola. At Isola we engage a guide (4 fr., bargaining necessary).
Veii was one of the most powerful of the Etruscan cities. After contests protracted for centuries (comp. p. 435), and after manifold vicissitudes and a long siege, the city was taken by Camillus in 396 B.C. After its capture it fell to decay, and was repeopled by Cæsar with Romans; but this colony scarcely occupied one-third of the former area.
The ancient site of of the city had a circumference of 3-3 1/2 M. and forms a triangle between two brooks, which unite with each other farther down: viz. the Fosso dell' Isola, washing the N.E.