For their patience and support I am indebted to my husband, Loney, my stepdaughter, Maggie, and especially to my son, Malcolm, whose persistent question, "When are you going to finish the book about Granny Essie?" inspired me to complete this manuscript. It has been a long time coming.
The comments, suggestions, and advice of my brother and best friend, Alan McBeth, were of singular importance to the completion of this book. He always had time to read one more section and to advise me on grammar, content, and clarity.
To my mother, Muriel McBeth, I also owe special thanks. She accompanied me on my first trip to Naytahwaush in 1987 to care for my then two‐ year-old-son while I worked, but more than that, she has always been supportive of my dreams and visions.
I also want to thank my siblings—Ray, Karen, Alan, Dean, Casey, Mark, and Glenn—and my dad, Carroll, for their help and support over the years.
Lucie Minsk (Dartmouth College) provided invaluable assistance with the transcription of many of the taped interviews. The interlibrary loan staff at the University of Northern Colorado were also of tremendous help, as were friends in Fargo, North Dakota; Moorhead, Minnesota; Wahpeton, North Dakota; Naytahwaush, Minnesota; and Greeley, Colorado.
I also want to thank my colleagues in the Anthropology department at the University of Northern Colorado: Bob Brunswig for help with the map, Michael Higgins for theoretical insights, and Jim Wanner for critical readings. Friend and kindred spirit Anneliese Walsh assisted with the family tree. Loney Tassi also provided invaluable assistance with the reproduction of the photographs. The Hispanic Studies Department was generous with the loan of their Macintosh printer.
The comments and suggestions of the three University of Nebraska Press anonymous readers are gratefully acknowledged. Lavonne Ruoff's suppor