VOTING ON THE FORTAS, HAYNSWORTH,
AND CARSWELL NOMINATIONS
The roll call data employed to construct the ideology index are drawn from the Congressional Quarterly Almanac. The Almanac for 1968 provides the data employed to construct the index for those senators taking part in the cloture vote on the Fortas nomination. Data employed to construct the index for those senators voting on the Haynsworth and Carswell nominations are drawn from the Almanac for 1969. For the Fortas case, the index represents the percentage of time each senator voted in behalf of the interests of lower or less privileged economic and social groups in the United States on fifteen selected roll calls occurring in 1968. For the Haynsworth and Carswell cases, the index is based upon twelve roll calls in the Senate during 1969 which involved the interests of lower or less privileged groups. In constructing the index for both 1968 and 1969, live pairs, announcements for or against, and responses to the Congressional Quarterly poll have been counted along with the recorded votes on each roll call. A failure to vote or otherwise be recorded on the roll call lowers an individual senator's score.
Congressional Quarterly assigns each roll call appearing in the Almanac a specific identifying number. Knowing the roll call number and consulting the Almanac will enable the reader to ascertain the specific nature of the roll calls used.
For 1968, fifteen selected roll calls were used. Those for which a "yea" vote was designated the liberal response were: 8 (motion to invoke cloture on an open housing provision), 32 (appropriation for the Head Start program), 67 (amendment to exempt spending for the war on pov