Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity

By Richard T. Antoun; Donald Quataert | Go to book overview

Two Class and State in Ba'thist Syria

Raymond A. Hinnebusch

This essay explores the role of class in Syria's politics and the effect of state policy under the Ba'th on its class structure. Some deny the relevance of class, viewing small groups, particularly sects, as the effective units of Syrian politics. 1 This is attributed to a mosaic society and particularistic culture, or an authoritarian state intolerant of open politics. Some, too, dismiss the effect of state action on the class structure, viewing the class ideologies of radical elites as mere facades for power struggles. 2

It is impossible to make sense of modern Syrian political development without resort to the class variable. This is not to dispute the importance of group politics in a mosaic society and kinship culture in which sect and family were the inherited "natural" units of political action. However, after a century of capitalist penetration and modernization, Syria is no longer a simple segmental society but a complex one in which "vertical" units coexist with classes. Political action has not typically taken the form of large class formations in open conflict. But the political conflicts of greatest consequence, those that have driven systemic change, have pitted coalitions, which, though heterogeneous (often including sectarian and occupation groups), were brought together by class interests in battles over class-related issues, such as the distribution of wealth arising from a certain mode of production and relations to the world capitalist centers.

No claim is made that the state is always an instrument of class power, for it may be an arena of conflict or autonomous of classes, but class origins have powerfully shaped the ideology of political elites and there have been periods when the state has been used as an instrument of class defense or, particularly under the radical Ba'th, of "revolution

-29-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 172

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.