I would like to thank the librarians of Penfield Library at SUNY Oswego, especially Ms. Mary Bennett and Ms. Adele Mangano, for their, invaluable patience and assistance; and the SUNY Oswego Scholarly and Creative Committee for a summer grant to conduct my research. For their intelligent suggestions for improving a large portion of the manuscript, I am especially grateful to Peter N. Dunn and to Virginia L. Radley. Special thanks are extended to Carola F. Sautter and Susan Geraghty of SUNY Press and to Eileen Dunn. I also thank Natalie J. Woodall, who at first undertook to type the manuscript, but who ultimately became an invaluable research assistant. My debts to many writers are apparent throughout the book, especially to the translators and the critics of the texts considered in these pages. Their work has made the fiction of these talented women readily available. Without them, the present book would not have been possible.