Work and Lifecourse in Japan

By Samuel Coleman; Theodore F. Cook Jr. et al. | Go to book overview
Toyo Menka Kaisha, Ltd.; Kanematsu-Goshō Ltd.; and Nichimen Co., Ltd.
5.
I am indebted to Solomon Levine and Susan Pharr for their help in arriving at this formulation of the relationship.
6.
Bandō ( 1977:15-16) notes that "the desire among women to get married increases with every year of age after they turn 20. It reaches a peak when they are 25, and thereafter suddenly decreases. In particular, the decrease generally becomes more marked when they pass 30, and, on the contrary, there is a marked increase in the number of those who state they have no desire to marry."
7.
Vogel ( 1979) indicates the importance of marriage to Japanese women when she says that "the role of the housewife is the socially expected and socially approved role for women," that "marriage in Japan is a woman's life-time employment," and that it is "her mothering, her caring for her family that gives a housewife her self-definition and her ikigai (her purpose in life)."
8.
Brown ( 1974:185-186) describes the way in which Japanese men shifted their sense of identity and personal worth from family to government ministry and economic enterprise during modernization, with the result that "a man's worth, his character, or his status is determined by the extent of his firm's participation in the economic life of the nation." Given the continued belief that a woman's proper work is in the home, the word "man" here should be taken literally, that is, as referring specifically to men, not generally to humans.
9.
Carter and Dilatush ( 1976: 78) discuss the selection process for women at another sōgō shōsha. Rohlen (1974a:63-73) presents the selection process for men and women at the bank he studied.
11.
On the problems of older single working women in Japan see Shiozawa and Shimada ( 1976).

References
Bandō Mariko.
1977 The Women of Japan: Past and Present. About Japan Series No. 5 Tokyo: Foreign Press Center.
Brown, William.
1974 Japanese Management: The Cultural Background. In Japanese Culture and Behavior, Takie Sugiyama Lebra and William P. Lebra , eds. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.
____________________
10.
Rohlen ( 1974a:192-211) details the training for both men and women at his bank. Carter and Dilatush ( 1976:78) point out that women in offices "receive training only in specific job skills like telephone operator duties and things related to their hostessing-type work."

-180-

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