Biodiversity Preservation Issues in the European Union’s Development Cooperation Policy
This chapter will offer a short analysis of aspects of the European Union’s (EU) development cooperation policy dealing with biological diversity conservation and its sustainable use. The first introductory section will deal with general scientific issues on biological diversity. Section two will briefly analyse biodiversity issues and international law. Section three will focus on general EU strategies for biological diversity conservation and its sustainable use. Section four will concern, in particular, biological diversity issues in development projects. The final section will draw conclusions and recommendations for the future.
The first time that the expression ‘biological diversity’ appeared in a scientific publication was in 1980. Norse and MacManus identified the variability of life on Earth within genetic diversity and ecological diversity. The former was considered to be the variability between species and the latter the variability of species within communities composed of organisms. 1 However, it was only in 1992 that the Convention on Biological Diversity provided a clear definition of biological diversity (or, in its contracted form, biodiversity). Its Article 2 states that biological diversity is ‘the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’. 2