Ethnicity and Sport in North American History and Culture

By George Eisen; David K. Wiggins | Go to book overview

8

The Notion of
Double-Consciousness and the
Involvement of Black Athletes
in American Sport

David K. Wiggins

W.E.B. Du Bois wrote in his classic book, The Souls of Black Folk, that blacks in this country have always felt a sense of being "an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings, two warring ideals in one dark body whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.... The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife." 1 This double-consciousness of being both black and American, which Du Bois pointed out in 1903, was evident in the careers of the most successful black athletes involved in American sport since the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Outstanding black athletes in this country were similar to other members of their race in that American discriminatory practices compelled them to live split existences. On the one hand, black athletes were proud of their race for its forbearance and ability to survive, and fought against the negative images of black inferiority. At the same time, black athletes aspired to success in American sport which necessitated that they adhere to values upheld in the dominant society. This duality was intertwined with a number of other important considerations, including economic issues, questions of gender, and the fact that black athletes strove for success in an institution not only controlled by whites but whose basic structure was defined by white standards.

The likelihood of maintaining a black identity, let alone gaining admission into sport, was made difficult for black athletes because the white American's stereotype of blacks inverted their own Protestant ethic. Blacks were variously categorized as docile or savage, faithful or tricky, pathetic or comical, childish or oversexed. This broad range of black character deserved no rewards and did not accommodate the ideal white image of the athlete. In addition, black athletes were involved in an institution which fashioned itself as the great

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Ethnicity and Sport in North American History and Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 249

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.