Democracy in Latin America: (Re)Constructing Political Society

By Manuel Antonio Garretón M.; Edward Newman | Go to book overview

6
Crisis and regression: Ecuador,
Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela
Heinz R. Sonntag

Introduction

During and until the end of the 1970s, the societies of the Latin American and Caribbean region were under authoritarian governments, with five exceptions: Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. 1 At the beginning of the twenty-first century, all countries – except Cuba – have elected governments and undergo periodical processes of legitimization through elections and thus can replace their governments by alternative ones.

The general reasons for and features of this proliferation of democracy during the 1980s (and, in the cases of Ecuador, Peru and Nicaragua, during the last years of the 1970s) are explored in other contributions to this volume. But like any general rule, the democratization of Latin American and Caribbean political systems and states during the last two decades of the twentieth century has its exceptions. The objective of this essay is to analyse both the common and the individual characteristics of the cases whose democracies are experiencing deep crises and regressions.

These cases are Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. Each is as different from the others as each society of the region is with respect to the rest – yet they share certain common patterns. 2 These differences and similarities make comparative analysis in Latin America and the Caribbean so attractive and enriching: the existence of the differences makes it difficult, though not impossible, to fall into the trap of overall general-

-126-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Democracy in Latin America: (Re)Constructing Political Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Acronyms vii
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • Scenarios of Democracy and Transition 17
  • 2 - Transitions: Brazil 19
  • Notes *
  • 3 - Transitions: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay 45
  • Notes *
  • 4 - Reforms: Mexico and Colombia 66
  • Notes *
  • 5 - Foundations: Central America 99
  • Notes *
  • 6 - Crisis and Regression: Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela 126
  • Notes *
  • Democracy and the (re)construction of Political Society 159
  • 7 - Social Dimensions: Ethnicity 161
  • Notes *
  • 8 - Reconciliation 188
  • Notes *
  • 9 - The New Socio-Political Matrix 220
  • Notes *
  • 10 - The Transformation of Political Culture 249
  • Notes *
  • 11 - The International Dimension of Democratization and Human Rights in Latin America 278
  • Notes *
  • Contributors 301
  • Index 305
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 319

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.