Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries

By Prasad Modak; Asit K. Biswas | Go to book overview

Annex 9.1: Case study for risk assessments

Petroleum terminal and distribution project

Project description

The project involves upgrading an operational oil terminal facility through the addition of new storage tanks, improvement of tank foundations, and construction of a new pipeline. The terminal receives various petroleum products by ship. It stores the products and subsequently distributes them to the domestic market by barge, tank trucks, drums, and cylinders. At present, the main activities in the terminal include unloading of the products from ships, loading of liquid products into barges, loading of liquid products and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) into tank trucks, blending and loading of lubricating oils in drums, and filling of LPG cylinders.

The proposed 50 km pipeline will be used to transport LPG and light petroleum products to a pumping station in another city, and then to another terminal in a port. The pipeline will pass a populated area, highways, rivers, a railroad, mangrove areas, and energy transmission lines.

The terminal is in a commercial/industrial area on the edge of an island. Adjacent facilities include shipyards, other industrial plants, and office buildings. Strong typhoons average two per year. The population around the terminal consists mostly of about 2000 workers in the area. Similar terminals operated by the same company can be found in many other countries, although the distribution system varies in each case.


ERA screening

An EIA with ERA is proposed to be conducted for the project. The EIA will assess the impact of the project to the population and the natural ecosystem. EIAs for similar facilities have identified the following as the major sources of environmental concerns: fuel spills and leakages, fires, explosions, vapour clouds, and pollution from the storage or accidental spills and leaks of the petroleum products. The ERA is expected to investigate these concerns where significant consequences and uncertainties warrant. The major hazard is large quantities of motor gasoline and LPG, which have low flash points. Spills and leakages could cause fires, explosions, or vapour clouds and could lead to catastrophic consequences, but the actual risk depends on how and when the spills and leakages would occur and what their magnitudes or sizes are.

Potential spills during operations are most likely during the transfer of products from one location or from one transport mode to another, such as from barge to tank truck. Those transferred at temperatures below their flash points may burn but will not create a flammable vapour cloud. Those liquids with high flash points (e.g., in excess of 80°C) will be diffi-

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Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Further Reading 11
  • 2 - Introduction to Eia 12
  • 3 - Eia Process 21
  • Further Reading *
  • 4 - Eia Methods 70
  • Further Reading *
  • 5 - Eia Tools 98
  • Further Reading *
  • 6 - Environmental Management Measures and Monitoring 124
  • Further Reading *
  • 7 - Eia Communication 165
  • Further Reading *
  • 8 - Writing and Reviewing an Eia Report 177
  • Further Reading *
  • 9 - Emerging Developments in Eia 196
  • Further Reading *
  • Annex 9.1: Case Study for Risk Assessments 272
  • 10 - Case Studies to Illustrate Environmental Impact Assessment Studies 278
  • Case Study 10.1 Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant, Leyte, Philippines *
  • Further Reading *
  • Case Study 10.2 Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme *
  • Case Study 10.3 Tin Smelter Project in Thailand *
  • References *
  • Case Study 10.4 Thai National Fertilizer Corporation Project *
  • References *
  • Case Study 10.5 Map Ta Phut Port Project *
  • References *
  • Case Study 10.6 Eia at Work: A Hydroelectric Project in Indonesia *
  • Case Study 10.7 the Greater Cairo Wastewater Project *
  • Index 348
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