Assessing Federal Research and Development for Hazard Loss Reduction

By Charles Meade; Megan Abbott | Go to book overview

Chapter One
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

In recent years, the United States has experienced a decline in the number of lives lost as a result of natural hazards. At the same time, the associated economic costs of these events—both atmospheric (hurricanes, tornadoes, winter storms, heat, droughts, and floods) and geologic (volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis)—are escalating.1 Between 1978 and 1989, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) disaster relief fund expenditures totaled about $7 billion. In the next dozen years, however, that number increased almost fivefold, to over $39 billion (GAO, 2002).2 The costs of weather-related disasters have doubled or tripled each decade over the past 35 years (Mileti, 1999, p. 66).3 During the 1990s, an estimated $13 billion in losses resulted each year from extreme-weather events (Pielke and Carbone, 2002).4 Examples of these trends are charted in Figures 1.1 through 1.3, which show federal disaster relief payments and losses from U.S. hurricanes.

The United States has made great strides in its ability to protect its citizens during disasters. Compare, for instance, the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan to California's 1994 Northridge earthquake. With a 6.9 magnitude, the Kobe earthquake caused an estimated $200 billion in damage, and more than 5,000 lives were lost. The Northridge earthquake, with a magnitude of 6.7, caused over $40 billion in damage but resulted in the loss of only 59 lives. Building code improvements and other efforts to sustain infrastructure are widely believed to have played an important role in limiting casualties.

____________________
1
While we use the terms hazard and disaster interchangeably here, many federal agencies and other entities distinguish between them. Generally, a natural hazard is characterized as a natural phenomenon that has the potential to cause damage to individuals, the environment, and property, whereas a disaster is on a larger scale in terms of impact, generally exceeding people's ability to control or recover quickly or completely from its consequences.
2
These amounts are in fiscal year (FY) 2001 dollars. According to the General Accounting Office, this rise is attributable to both a “number of large, costly disasters” and the fact that “activities eligible for federal assistance have increased” (GAO, 2002).
3
These figures are in FY 1994 dollars standardized on the basis of the Consumer Price Index. All such loss estimates are wide-ranging due to the data limitations outlined in Chapter Four.
4
Pielke and Carbone (2002) updated figures generated by Kunkel, Pielke, and Changnon (1999), who calculated the economic and other human losses related to extreme weather in the United States. As Pielke and Carbone point out, “Caution is urged in the use of these aggregate figures. Different measures might arrive at smaller or larger results” (p. 395). The difficulties in deriving definitive loss totals are discussed throughout this document.

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Assessing Federal Research and Development for Hazard Loss Reduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Summary xi
  • Acronyms xvii
  • Chapter One - Introduction and Background 1
  • Chapter Two - Quantifying R&d for Hazard Loss Reduction 11
  • Chapter Three - Characterizing the R&d Effort 27
  • Chapter Four - The Policy Challenge for Hazard Loss R&d 35
  • Chapter Five - Summary and Conclusions 51
  • Appendix - Sample Radius Record 59
  • References 61
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 65

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.