Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazards in the Philippines

By Greg Bankoff | Go to book overview

1

‘Vulnerability’ as western discourse

Natural disasters seem to have increasingly caught the attention of the western media in the late twentieth century, carrying reports and images of drought, flood, famine, earthquake, volcanic eruption, typhoon, tsunami and the like into suburban homes on an almost daily basis. Pinatubo, Kobe, ‘Mitch’, Izmit, Orissa and countless other hazards have become household names overnight as the glare of western public attention momentarily illuminates a less well-known corner of the globe. 1 Whether natural disasters now happen more frequently is a matter of some considerable scientific controversy, not least about what actually constitutes ‘natural’ and what are human-induced ones. 2 Statistically, it is claimed that the number of hazards causing 25 or more deaths rose annually from 10 in the 1940s to about 50 by the 1990s (Chapman 1994:5). United Nations experts calculate that the number of disasters rose on average 6 per cent each year between 1962-92 (Associated Press 1995:1, 6) and that they affected an average of 200 million people each year during the 1990s, a fourfold increase from the late 1960s (Walker and Walter 2000:188; Smith 1996:39). 3 Various explanations have been put forward to account for this escalation, some even claiming that it is just the product of better media coverage and others that it merely reflects a more densely settled global population. But few would now dispute that hazards are having a growing impact on human society: ironically both as a consequence of greater affluence and of greater poverty, of larger cities and more costly infrastructure (Kobe and Izmit) and of greater environmental degradation caused by overpopulation and unsustainable rural practices (‘Mitch’ and Orissa).

How to mitigate the effects of hazards and relieve the consequences of disasters seem destined to be major issues of academic enquiry in the new century if for no other reason than that they are inseparably linked to questions of environmental conservation, resource depletion and migration patterns in an increasingly globalised world. However, less than adequate attention has been directed to considering the historical roots of the discursive framework within which hazard is generally presented, and how that might reflect particular cultural values to do with the way in which certain regions or zones of the world are usually imagined. In one sense, this

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Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazards in the Philippines
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures ix
  • Tables xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Introduction: of Jellyfish and Coups 1
  • 1 - ‘vulnerability’ as Western Discourse 5
  • 2 - Environment and Hazard in Southeast Asia 18
  • 3 - A History of Hazard in the Philippines 31
  • 4 - The ‘costs’ of Hazard in the Contemporary Philippines 61
  • 5 - The Politics of Disaster Management and Relief 83
  • 6 - The Economics of Red Tides 106
  • 7 - The Social Order and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation 123
  • 8 - Cultures of Disaster 152
  • Conclusion: Hazard as a Frequent Life Experience 179
  • References 200
  • Index 225
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