Drives, Unsettling Events, and Fantasy
Drive clearly occupies a less central position in the present analysis than it has held traditionally, but drive states probably affect fantasy structure and content in ways that are not exhausted by the operation of incentives alone. First, of course, the value of an incentive depends at least in part on a subject's drive state. Second, drives are sources of affect-arousing stimuli. Third, drives appear to affect motor readiness, response vigor, and organization, thus setting the stage for response processes that compete with respondent activity and altering the structure of whatever respondent activity may occur.
Unfortunately, virtually no systematic evidence exists concerning the effects of drive on the incidence, vividness, organization, or other structural properties of fantasy. Therefore the question of what effects drive states exert on fantasy must for now be narrowed down to the effects of particular kinds of aroused drives on the content of fantasy.
In a naturally-occurring situation drives and incentives often go hand in hand. In ecologically hospitable circumstances, an experienced organism knows how to satisfy needs through relatively dependable actions. The environment normally offers a wide variety of incentives, and organisms who anticipate aroused drive states or are aroused proceed to do what they must to obtain satisfaction. In these circumstances it is difficult to examine the effects of aroused drives separately from the effects of anticipated incentives.
Both in nature and in experiment it is possible to separate the two by creating a drive state in circumstances that offer no opportunity for satisfaction. For instance, one can deprive or terrify subjects and eliminate all hope of sustenance or escape, at least for a time. With human subjects, of course, unremitting deprivation must be uncoercive. It is normally ar-