Human Resource Management in Developing Countries

By Pawan S. Budhwar; Yaw A. Debrah | Go to book overview

12

Human resource management in Ghana

Yaw A. Debrah

Introduction

This chapter begins with some basic statistics 1 about Ghana, a West African country with a population of 18.5 million (annual growth rate, 3.1 per cent; average life expectancy, 59 years; national literacy level, 75 per cent). It occupies a total area of 238,537 sq. km and is well endowed with natural resources such as gold, diamonds, bauxite, manganese, iron ore, clay and salt deposits. It is also blessed with a good supply of arable land, suitable for both crop and livestock production, and forestry.

Agriculture is the main economic activity in Ghana, with cocoa the leading export crop. Cocoa is grown in six of the country’s ten regions and as an economic activity it occupies 8 million people or close to half the population, mainly as small-scale farmers. Cocoa is the country’s second biggest export earner after gold and contributes 13-14 per cent of GDP, 11 per cent of tax and 30-35 per cent of foreign exchange earnings (Wallis, 1999).

In 1999, Ghana had a total labour force of 3.7 million. This is a considerable decline from the 4.2 million in 1982 and slightly higher than the 1970 figure of 3.3 million (Huq, 1989). There is growing concern about unemployment because of the ongoing retrenchment of workers, economic structural changes, and, in particular, the decline in the manufacturing sector. In the late 1970s, manufacturing accounted for about 14 per cent of GDP, in 1999 it was less than 10 per cent. Wage employment exists in almost all industries but, in recent years, the bulk has been in mining and construction. This is due to the former being able to attract foreign investment and the latter benefiting from overseas loans to rehabilitate the country’s infrastructure. Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with about six main local languages. English, however, is the official language.

In the economic realm, Ghana has embarked on an ambitious economic and social programme designed to qualify it as a middle income country by 2020. According to the government’s development blueprint, known as Vision 2020, it is expected that an annual growth rate of 12 per cent can be achieved by the end of the plan period. But, as Holman (1999a:3) comments:

After 13 years of rumbling down the runway of World Bank and IMF aid-backed reforms, Ghana’s economy has yet to reach take off. Not only is

-190-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human Resource Management in Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures ix
  • Tables xi
  • Foreword xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgements xix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • References 12
  • Part I - Human Resource Management in Asia 17
  • 2 - Human Resource Management in the People’s Republic of China 19
  • 3 - Human Resource Management in South Korea 34
  • References 54
  • 4 - Human Resource Management in Taiwan 56
  • 5 - Human Resource Management in India 75
  • 6 - Human Resource Management in Nepal 91
  • 7 - Human Resource Management in Pakistan 102
  • 8 - Human Resource Management in Iran 121
  • References 133
  • 9 - Human Resource Management in Saudi Arabia 135
  • References 149
  • Part II - Human Resource Management in Africa 153
  • 10 - Human Resource Management in Algeria 155
  • References 172
  • 11 - Human Resource Management in Nigeria 174
  • References 188
  • 12 - Human Resource Management in Ghana 190
  • 13 - Human Resource Management in Kenya 209
  • 14 - Human Resource Management in South Africa 222
  • 15 - Conclusion 238
  • Subject Index 255
  • Name Index 259
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 264

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.