Children on the Streets of the Americas: Homelessness, Education, and Globalization in the United States, Brazil, and Cuba

By Roslyn Arlin Mickelson | Go to book overview

20

Civic Invisibility, Marginality, and Moral Exclusion: The Murders of Street Youth in Brazil

Martha K. HugginsandMyriam Mesquita

Sixteen-year-old Jefferson was shot to death in the entryway to his family home in a poor district on the periphery of Brazil’s largest city. He was one of thirty poor children murdered in São Paulo, Brazil, just in July 1991 alone. Jefferson, like many other murdered youth, did not know his father; he lived with his younger siblings and mother, a washer woman, in a one-room cardboard, stucco, and wood structure. He dreamed of earning enough money to add a room where he could entertain his friends. But Jefferson’s dream was an illusion; his earnings for his family had always been well below subsistence level.

Jefferson had begun working when he was seven, mostly in the informal sector, where he pieced together a meager income gathering scrap metal and cardboard, selling fruit, washing windows, and helping out a fishmonger and a stone mason. Jefferson had been looking for a “regular job”—one covered by minimum wage and social security legislation. But his search had been in vain, for, as his mother explained, “employers don’t hire draft-age boys.” (Arruda 1991:21)

Jefferson’s story puts a human face on Brazil’s young murder victims; the majority are poor black or dark-brown males between 15 and 17 years old. These are the youth most likely to die at the hands of a stranger. Girls of all ages are less likely to be murdered by strangers; most often, girls are killed by a family member or close family associate. This chapter focuses on youth murdered by strangers in Brazil.


EXCLUSION AND MURDER: A THESIS

This chapter focuses on victim-generating sociostructural situations and the social creation of victims in Brazil. Rather than concentrating on individuals’ predispositions or overt motives for murdering Brazilian youth, or the victims’ specific alleged misbehavior and threats, or on some generalized culture of violence, we identify the conditions that make particular kinds of Brazilian youth into social problems and symbolic assailants—adolescents whose assumed social and physical characteristics render them criminal without their necessarily having committed a crime.

Our thesis states that modern Brazilian social structures powerfully shape poor Brazilian youths’ vulnerability to being murdered by strangers. Such youth come from

-257-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Children on the Streets of the Americas: Homelessness, Education, and Globalization in the United States, Brazil, and Cuba
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 309

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.