6th century AD: Turkic tribes began to settle in the area of modern Kazakhstan, which was on the western borders of their empire.
1219: The Mongols conquered the area, destroying the urban culture of the south, which had emerged in the 10th century. The Golden and White Hordes (Tatars) became the dominant powers of the region.
c.1511-1523: Kasym Khan established himself as leader of a loose confederation of steppe tribes, the Kazakh Orda (Horde). Some unity continued under his successor, Tahir, but did not persist.
1645: Guriyev (Atyrau), on the Caspian Sea, was acquired by the Russian Empire, which now bordered the territories of the Kazakh Hordes (the Little, the Middle and the Great).
1731: Under pressure from the Oirot Mongols, the Khan of the Little Horde (in the west, near the Caspian) was granted the protection of the Russian Tsar.
1740: The Khans of the Middle Horde (in the north and east of modern Kazakhstan) gained Russian protection.
1742: Part of the Great Horde, to the south of the other Hordes, secured the protection of the Russian Empire from the Oirot Mongols (although in 1758 the Oirots were to be defeated by the Chinese Manzhou—Manchu Empire, which became the ruler of the rest of the Great Horde).
1822: The absorption of the Kazakhs into the Russian Empire began with the territory of the Middle Horde, which was divided into Russian administrative units, while Russian military jurisdiction was imposed for criminal offences and Kazakhs were forbidden to acquire serfs.
1824: The same process was implemented in the territory of the Little Horde and, despite some revolts and resistance, was followed by new taxation demands and strictures, such as Kazakhs being denied the right to cultivate land.
1847: The Great Horde lost its independence, when it was required to pledge its allegiance to the Russian Empire. The following year the last Khan of the Middle Horde was formally deposed.
1854: Foundation of the Russian garrison town of Vernoye (now Almaty—Alma-Ata).
1861: The emancipation of the serfs in the Russian Empire witnessed the first large influx of Slav settlers to Kazakh territory.