AD 552-659: Turkic tribes moved west and settled in the area of modern Turkmenistan.
644-661: Southern areas of modern Turkmenistan, including Mary (Merv), were conquered for Islam under Caliphs ‘Uthman and ‘Ali.
661-750: Central and eastern areas of Turkmenistan were taken by Muslims during the Umaiyad dynasty.
10th century: Turkic Oguz tribes, ancestors of the Turkmen, migrated to Turkmenistan.
1038-1194: Southern and eastern areas of Turkmenistan formed part of the territory of the Seljuq Turkic dynasty.
1219-1225: Mongol forces under Temujin (Chinghiz or Genghis Khan) attacked Khwarezm, formerly a territory owing allegiance to the Abbasid caliphate, establishing the Empire of the Khwarezm Shah.
1251-1265: Hulagu, a grandson of Chinghiz Khan, established the Empire of the Il-Khans, which included all but the extreme north-west of modern Turkmenistan.
1353: The Il-Khans were replaced by a local Turkmen dynasty who established beyliks, administrative areas ruled by beys (princes).
1370-1380: A Turkmen emir from Transoxania, in modern Uzbekistan, Timur (‘the Lame’—Tamerlane), founded the second Mongol Empire, which included the territories of the Turkmen. Timur’s empire disintegrated rapidly after his death in 1405 and control of Transoxania passed to the Uzbek tribes.
17th century: Southern areas of Turkmenistan, including Mary, were dominated by the Safawid dynasty of Persia (Iran).
1868-1873: The Uzbek-ruled khanates of Bukhara and Khiva, which had disputed Persia for control of Turkmen territories for more than one century, were made protectorates of the Russian Empire. The Russians also gained control of western areas of Turkmenistan adjacent to the Caspian Sea.
1881: After a four-year campaign by the Russians against the tribes of central Turkmenistan, an estimated 14500 Turkmen were killed at the battle of Gök Tepe (near Ashgabat—Ashkhabad).
1884: Persia ceded control of the territories near Mary, which became the southernmost part of the Russian Empire.