AN INDIVIDUAL'S STRATEGY
Based on implementing the approach described in the preceding chapter, this chapter defines a strategy that an individual would adopt to respond to, and prepare for, large terrorist attacks involving unconventional weapons. The strategy focuses on four types of terrorist attacks: chemical, radiological, nuclear, and biological. In each case, the strategy begins by describing what an individual would need to know about the characteristics and dangers of each type of attack. We then present an individual's primary needs and overarching goals. This sets the stage for a description of the actions that an individual would take and why these are appropriate. Because an individual's instincts in responding to such terrorist attacks may run counter to the course that provides the best protection, the strategy includes a set of priorities that an individual should bear in mind. The final part of the strategy is a discussion of the preparatory steps that an individual would take to carry out the recommended response actions. Given their importance to the success of the individual's strategy, enabling government and business actions are also included at the end of this chapter.
Types of Attack. Chemical attacks entail the dispersal of chemical vapors, aerosols, liquids, or solids that have hazardous effects on people, animals, or plants. Chemical agents can be released by a variety of methods, including by bombs or by spraying from vehicles. They affect individuals through inhalation or exposure to eyes and skin. Their impact may be immediate (a few seconds) or delayed (several hours to several days), and some chemical agents are odorless and tasteless (FEMA, 2002).
Numerous chemical agents could be used in a terrorist attack, including both industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. A large number of industrial chemicals might be used, including various acids, ammonia, chlorine, hydro-