International Trade: New Patterns of Trade, Production & Investment

By Nigel Grimwade | Go to book overview

Figures
Figure1.1 Real commodity prices deflated by price of manufactures: 1870-1986 15
Figure2.1 The production possibility line under constant opportunity costs 33
Figure2.2 The gains from trade under constant opportunity costs 34
Figure2.3a Country A’s offer curve of wheat for cloth 37
Figure2.3b Country B’s offer curve of cloth for wheat 37
Figure2.4. The equilibrium terms of trade 38
Figure2.5 A country’s production possibility (transformation curve under increasing opportunity costs) 45
Figure2.6 The nature of pre-trade equilibrium under conditions of increasing opportunity costs 47
Figure2.7 Consumer indifference curves 48
Figure2.8 General equilibrium before and after trade 51
Figure2.9 Factor price equalisation 52
Figure2.10 Trade between two countries with identical factor endowments but different tastes 55
Figure2.11 The influence of product quality and per capita income on the pattern of trade 57
Figure2.12 Trade under decreasing costs 59
Figure2.13 Technological-gap trade 61
Figure2.14 The product life-cycle model of trade 63
Figure2.15 Export policy under monopoly 67
Figure3.1 An example of intra-industry trade occurring in weight-gaining products across borders 88
Figure3.2 The Brander-Krugman duopoly model 91
Figure3.3 Oligopoly equilibrium under Cournot assumptions about firms’ behaviour 91
Figure3.4 Reciprocal dumping in the Brander-Krugman duopoly model 92
Figure3.5 A consumer’s compensation function 94
Figure3.6 The Lancaster core-attributes model of horizontal differentiation 95
Figure3.7 Trade under monopolistic competition 96
Figure3.8 Market equilibrium in the Dixit-Stiglitz model 98
Figure4.1 A typology of two-way international economic transactions (the Dunning-Norman matrix) 153
Figure4.2 Michael Porter’s diamond of national competitive advantage 157
Figure5.1 Toyota’s Integrated Manufacting Operations in East Asia 177
Figure5.2 Honda Motor’s motorcycle networks in the European Union, supply links with Japan, the United States and Brazil, 1996 178

-vii-

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