Eighteenth Century Economics: Turgot, Beccaria and Smith and Their Contemporaries

By Peter Groenewegen | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Terence Hutchison, Before Adam Smith (Oxford, 1988) for example, p. 12.
2
Peter Groenewegen, ‘Pietro Verri’s mature political economy of the Meditazioni: a case study in the highly developed international transmission mechanism of ideas in pre-revolutionary Europe’, paper presented at a Conference on ‘Political Economy and National Identity’, Luigi Einaudi Foundation, Turin, September 1992, Tables 1 and 2.
3
Antoin Murphy, Richard Cantillon: Entrepreneur and Economist (Oxford, 1986) esp. pp. 246-51.
4
David Hume, ‘My own life’, in The History of England (London, 1802) vol. 1, esp. pp. vi-vii, ix, xii-xiii.
5
See for example Terence Hutchison, Before Adam Smith, pp. 164-5; Murphy, Richard Cantillon, ch. 13; Anthony Brewer, Richard Cantillon, Pioneer of Economic Theory (London, 1992), esp. ch. 9 which fails to explore French predecessors and potential influences.
6
A. Aspromourgos, Studies in the Formation of Classical Economics (London: Routledge, 1996) esp. chs 5 and 7.
7
Murphy, Richard Cantillon, esp. pp. 248-50, 274-9.
8
Richard Cantillon, Essai sur la nature du commerce en général, ed. Henry Higgs (London, 1959) pp. 105, 159, 187 for references to Boizard, Vauban and Etat de la France respectively.
9
Jacqueline Hecht, ‘Bibliographie commentée’, in Pierre de Boisguilbert (Paris, 1966) vol. 1, p. 520; and see in the same volume, J. J. Spengler, ‘Les théories économique de Boisguilbert’, p. 3; Higgs’ attribution of the Etat to Boulainvilliers is made in the index to his edition of Cantillon’s Essai, p. 393. Inspection of Boulainvillier’s Etat (London, 1727-8) vol. I, esp. p. 55, indicates that Cantillon’s specific remarks on the decline of the Mantes wine industry cannot easily be attributed to this source.
10
Evidence for the presence of these propositions in Boisguilbert’s work is conveniently provided in Jacques Nagels, Reproduction du Capital selon Karl Marx: Boisguillebert, Quesnay, Leontiev (Brussels, 1970) pp. 26-51; Gilbert Faccarello, Aux origines de l’économie politique liberale: Pierre de Boisguilbert (Paris, 1986); Boisguilbert parmi nous, ed. Jacqueline Hecht (Paris, 1989).
11
Anthony Brewer, Richard Cantillon, ch. 9, esp. pp. 124-5.
12
Peter Groenewegen, ‘Marx’s conception of classical political economy: an evaluation’, Political Economy: Studies in the Surplus Approach (3) 1987, pp. 19-35.
13
An examination of the Kress Catalogue for these decades reveals the following characteristics. Although English-language literature, not surprisingly, predominates in its holdings, much of it is peripheral and as compared with French economic literature for these decades introduces few new important authors. Examples of exceptions are Jacob Vanderlint, Money Answers All Things (1734); George Berkeley, The Querist (1735); Sir Mathew Decker, Essay on the Decline of the Foreign Trade (1744); and Josiah Tucker’s Brief Essay on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Great Britain and France with Respect to Trade (1749). These are slight relative to the work by Melon, Du Tot and Montesquieu published in France, thereby showing that by this time French economics was at worst on a par with English writing on the subject, heralding the dominance it gained for some time during the 1750s and 1760s.
14
Hume, Writings of Economics, ed. Eugene Rotwein (London, 1955) p. 6 n1; Jean François Melon, Essai politique sur le commerce, in Economistes financiers du 18e siècle, ed. E. Daire (Paris, 1843) p. 800.
15
Hume, Writings on Economics, p. 39, n1.
16
Melon, Essai politique, pp. 763, 796-7.
17
Hume, Writings on Economics, pp. 92-3, note.
18
Melon, Essai politique, pp. 802-3, 805-7.

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