It is absolute bedlam out here…. With all sides screaming at you about the ballot propositions and the candidates, people just want it to stop.
—Consultant Bill Carrick, on the bombardment of political commercials during the 1996 elections
TV and radio are the old war. The new war is the battle for minds on the Internet.
—Timothy Butler, president of conservative website Town Hall, at its unveiling in 1995
Campaign communications have undergone extraordinary changes in the last decade. Cable television has proliferated, networks have lost market share, and broadcasting has been challenged by a range of narrow-casting opportunities. 1 The television market has exploded with new outlets and many new options for getting campaign messages to the public, which presents campaigns with an enormous new challenge: With a much more diverse audience watching many more stations, where do scarce television advertising dollars go?