On a day-to-day practical level, technologists and managers need to understand that in an era of rapid change the impact of changes in technology on organizations can often be extreme. Careful planning, not only of the technical side of information technology projects but still more of the human aspects, is required if the desired benefits are to be achieved. These themes will be explored in greater depth in Chapters 5 and 6.
Checkland, P. and Holwell, S. (1998) Information, Systems, and Information Systems, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. An excellent overview of basic information system concepts co-written by the guru of the ‘soft’ systems approach.
Dennis, A. and Wixom, B.H. (2000) Systems Analysis and Design: An Applied Approach, New York, John Wiley & Sons. Useful introduction to systems analysis.
Stalling, W. (2000) Computer Organization and Architecture (4th edn), Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice-Hall. Very good standard text which explains in some detail how modern computers work at the operating system and hardware levels.
Winston, B. (1998) Media, Technology and Society. A History: From the Telegraph to the Internet, London, Routledge. An excellent description of the development of modern means of computing and communication.