Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

See also: economy; labour market; land tenure; latifundia; migration; minifundia; standard of living; water supply


Further reading

c
Chislett, W. (1996) Spain 1996. The Central Hispano Handbook, Madrid: Banco Central Hispano (chapter 5 offers a succinct account of recent developments).

s
Salmon, K. (1995) The Modern Spanish Economy, Transformation and Integration into Europe, London: Pinter (chapter 3 offers an informative survey of agriculture, forestry and fishing).

C.A.LONGHURST


AIDS

Since the AIDS epidemic hit Spain in 1981 it is estimated that there may have been as many as 40,000 cases. The National AIDS Register had recorded 27,500 cases to the end of 1994 and 15,000 AIDS-related deaths, but this is generally admitted to be below the real figure, for until the redefinition of AIDS-induced illnesses many conditions and deaths were not attributed to AIDS. The most frequent cause of transmission of the virus is the intravenous use of drugs (64 percent), followed by homosexual relations (15 percent), heterosexual relations (13 percent) and foetal infection (2 percent), a pattern different from that of the rest of Europe, where homosexuality is the chief cause of transmission. Of those known to have been infected 80 percent have been male. It is officially estimated that there are some 150,000 people who are HIV-positive (0.375 percent of the population), and the incidence of AIDS is currently running at something over 4,000 new cases per annum, the worst affected areas by far being Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque country. The strong drugs connection has resulted in 30 percent of the prison population either being HIV-positive or already having developed AIDS. Although the PSOE government led by Felipe González carried out campaigns warning drug users of the dangers of infection through shared needles and urging the use of condoms as a preventive measure, this latter advice was strongly contested by the Catholic Church. The annual cost to the Spanish health service of dealing with the epidemic was running at 20,000m pesetas in 1990 and, according to some Spanish scientists, was leading to the neglect of other important diseases. Meanwhile AIDS has continued to spread, albeit rather more slowly in the 1990s, suggesting greater public awareness of the risks. Nevertheless at a rate of about 120 new diagnosed sufferers per million inhabitants Spain now has the highest incidence of AIDS in Europe.

C.A.LONGHURST


Alaska

b. 1963, Mexico

Singer

At the age of 14 Olvido Gara became the first punk girl in Spain to leap onto the stage, dressed in a leopard skin suit holding a guitar. As her real name did not possess sufficient glamour for the would-be star, she renamed herself Alaska after a song by Lou Reed. Alaska made her début in Kaka de Luxe which managed to record an EP; the group consisted of six other musicians who would go on to form some of the most acclaimed bands of new Spanish pop.

Her next group was Alaska y los Pegamoides, in which Olvido began as a guitarist. Shortly afterwards she exchanged her arrow-shaped guitar for a microphone, and sang her first single ‘Horror en el Hipermercado’ (Horror in the Hypermarket), redolent of the recurrent themes of her long career: narratives of everyday domestic life, combined with references to film, television, comics and science fiction. Her original look and innovative ideas carved her a prominent place in the flourishing Spanish music scene.

Alaska acted in Pedro Almodóvar’s first film: Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón (Pepi, Luci, Bom and All Those Other Girls), adding a touch of youthful rebellion as one of the three female protagonists.

The first and only LP recorded by Alaska y los Pegamoides had the audacious title Grandes Éxitos (Greatest Hits), and in it they combined different

-7-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 594

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.