Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

t
Thomas, G. (1992) The Novel of the Spanish Civil War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (an analysis which contains frequent references to the novels and short stories of El laberinto mágico).

GARETH THOMAS


Auditorio Nacional de Música

Spain’s National Concert Hall was begun in 1984 as part of a national plan for the construction of purpose-built concert halls throughout the country. From 1966 the Royal Theatre had served as Madrid’s concert hall but it was to be restored to its original purpose as an Opera House. The new concert hall was designed by the architect García de Paredes and his team, who also drew up the designs for halls in Granada, Valencia, Cuenca and Murcia. The acoustics of the hall have been highly praised and were engineered by Lothar Cremer of Berlin who was also the acoustics engineer for the Berlin Philharmonia and Opera Houses. In 1990 one of the biggest organs in the world with 5,700 pipes was installed in the symphony hall. Built by Gerhard Grenzing it can function both as solo instrument and for accompaniment. A smaller one was planned for the recital room to be built by Gabriel Blancafort of Barcelona.

EAMONN RODGERS


autarky

The guiding principle of the Franco dictatorship’s economic policy during the years 1939-59 was self-sufficiency or autarky. Numerous factors influenced this strategy, although historians continue to argue over the relative significance of each of them. The regime itself, and historians sympathetic towards Franco, have stressed that the country was affected by world war within months of the end of the Civil War and was then ‘ostracized’ by the international powers. The world conflict certainly made trade difficult. Moreover, the Allies were reluctant to provide Spain with food and other material when Franco’s sympathy for Nazi Germany was so manifest. However, this ostracism was never total; Spain continued to trade with both the Axis powers and the Allies. Indeed, Britain had signed a trade agreement with the insurgents as early as December 1936. Although exports to Britain and France declined from 1939, trade with Germany and Italy rose spectacularly. In fact, considerable resentment was caused in Spain when it became known that food was being exported to Hitler’s Germany in return for technical equipment.

Research on the early decades of the Franco dictatorship has drawn attention to the ideological commitment of the regime to autarky as an expression of extreme nationalism, a rejection of liberalism, a desire for national industrialization, a sympathy for fascist ideas, and a readiness to enter the war on the side of the Axis. Moreover, autarky fitted very well with a broader ideological belief in the need to seal Spain off culturally from the outside world. The making of the Francoist ‘New State’ was seen as being dependent upon a Catholic ‘moral re-education’ based upon the ‘essential values of Spanishness’. The physical and psychological suffering that this largely self-imposed isolation created was seen as being a punishment for the ‘sins’ of those Spaniards who had questioned the social system of pre-Republican Spain.

Economic self-sufficiency was a disaster for the Spanish people. The attempt to achieve autarky in the wheat production sector was disastrous and, ironically, the country became dependent upon imports from the Perón regime in Argentina from 1946 until the early 1950s. Amid the already bleak landscape of mass executions in the immediate aftermath of the Spanish conflict, approximately 200,000 people died of hunger during the first few years of Francoism.

The regime finally discarded autarky in 1959 when a programme of economic liberalization—the so-called Stabilization Plan—was agreed. However, this did not signal an ideological change of course. Franco remained reluctant and was persuaded only by the manifest failure of autarky to industrialize the country.


Further reading

h
Harrison, J. (1985) The Spanish Economy in the Twentieth Century, London: Croom Helm (this

-37-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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