Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

c
Chislett, W. (1996) Spain 1996: The Central Hispano Handbook, Madrid: Banco Central Hispano (chapter 2 on ‘The Economy and EU Convergence’ contains a section on the new role of the Bank of Spain in controlling inflation).

C.A LONGHURST


Banco de Santander

The Banco de Santander was founded in 1857 by a group of merchants in that city. The expansionary phase, from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, took it from being a predominantly regional bank to being a national bank with international representation throughout western Europe. Jointly with Bank of America it created the Banco Interconti-nental Español (Bankinter), and later, with Metropolitan Life, the insurance company Santander Metropolitan. It also has a substantial stake in First Union, the seventh largest US bank, owns the Portuguese Banco de Comércio e Indústria, and has a cross-share agreement with the Royal Bank of Scotland. It has important shareholdings in the major electricity company Endesa and in telecommunications. But the most dramatic acquisition of recent years has been that of the crisis-ridden Banesto, one of Spain’s major banks, brought down by the disastrous management of Mario Conde, subsequently investigated for alleged fraud. Following the discovery of massive irregularities in its accounts, Banesto was placed under the control of the Banco de España in 1993, and in 1994 Banco de Santander successfully bid for ownership in the face of competition from two other bidders, BBV and Banco Argentaria. One of the conditions of the purchase was that Santander had to keep Banesto as a distinct entity for a minimum of four years, after which the process of absorption would be implemented. The Santan-der’s strategy has been to sell the large industrial interests of Banesto and convert it to its own style of commercial banking. The Santander-Banesto conglomerate is the largest Bank in Spain and the 45th in the world. A further distinctive mark in the history of the Santander is the introduction in 1989 of interest-bearing current accounts (known as supercuentas) virtually unknown in Spanish commercial banking until then. This marked the beginning of a marketing revolution among Spanish banks in attracting clients’ deposits.

C.A.LONGHURST


Banderas, Antonio

b. 1960, Málaga

Actor

A highly successful actor in theatre, film and television, Banderas studied at the Málaga School of Dramatic Art in 1981, and became internationally known through his appearances in films by leading directors, especially Almodóvar, including Laberinto de pasiones (Labyrinth of Passions) (1982), Matador (1986), La ley del deseo (The Law of Desire) (1987), Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) (1988) and ¡Atame! (Tie Me Up, Tie Me Down!) (1989). He also appeared in Carlos Saura’s Los zancos (Stilts) (1984), and Trueba’s Two Much (1995).

See also: film and cinema

EAMONN RODGERS


banks

The prolonged economic crisis that began in 1975 had a disastrous effect on the smaller private banks, many of which had to be rescued by the Bank of Spain (Banco de España) and absorbed by the bigger, healthier banks. Spain’s entry into the EC in 1986 brought further dramatic change as competition from foreign banks threatened to take market share from the Spanish banks. A period of liberalization and streamlining of regulations by the monetary authorities was accompanied by mergers and new marketing ploys to attract depositors. The more than a hundred private banks of the early 1970s were reduced to just over thirty by the mid-1990s. The biggest mergers have been those between Banco de Bilbao and Banco de Vizcaya; Banco Central and Banco Hispanoamer-icano; the state-owned Banco Exterior with other financial institutions in the public sector (now

-47-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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