Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

than the socialists have in practically the whole of the rest of Spain.


Further reading

b
Balcells, A. (1996) Catalan Nationalism (edited and introduced by G.J. Walker), Basingstoke: Macmillan (contains an analysis of the role of the PSC in Catalonia).

DAVID GEORGE


Catalan television

There are two Catalan-language television channels broadcasting from Barcelona, TV3 and Canal 33, both belonging to the publicly owned Corporació Catalana de Radio i Televisió (Catalan Radio and Television Corporation). Both have proved highly successful in their own terms, with TV3 attracting the larger audiences, and Catalan-language television has now become a fundamental element of Catalan culture in general.

Catalonia’s first Catalan-language television channel, TV3, also known as Televisió de Catalunya (Catalan Television), first went on air in an experimental broadcast on 10 September 1983, some ten months after the setting up of the first Basque television channel, and in defiance, like it, of central government, which considered its use of certain terrestrial frequencies to be illegal. But the controversies surrounding its launch were not only legal. Considerable resentment was caused in Catalonia by the then head of Spanish television, José María Calviño, when he suggested during a visit to Barcelona that Catalan television should limit itself to things Catalan, rather than attempting to become a mainstream channel with a full portfolio of programme types (and thereby entering, of course, into direct competition with Spanish national television). Catalan television picked up this particular gauntlet enthusiastically, and has never had any doubts about its vocation to become the main television station of Catalonia as a whole, offering the entire range of programmes which viewers would expect from a mainstream television channel.

Despite the original legal difficulties, TV3’s legal situation was—like that of all the television channels of the other autonomous commu-nities—eventually normalized towards the end of 1984, representing a considerable political victory for the communities vis-à-vis Madrid. From 5 April 1989 Catalan television, together with the other autonomous channels, has also been a member of the Federation de Organizaciones de Radio y Television Autonómicas (Federation of Autonomous Radio and Television Organizations), in an attempt to strengthen the defence of its interests and increase its ability to bid successfully for programmes on the international markets.

In TV3’s first experimental broadcast, Catalans received foreign programmes dubbed into Catalan. It moved to regular broadcasting on 16 January 1984 with a weekly service of fourteen hours, increasing to thirty-five hours on 2 April. Although the process of dubbing continues (both of foreign-language productions and of productions in Spanish), TV3 has become an important source of domestic Catalan-language production, and has indeed become one of the most dynamic and forward-looking stations in Spain, opening a new complex of four buildings in 1986, and being the first station in Spain to introduce Electronic News Gathering teams and to design a corporate image.

On 10 September 1988 a second Catalan-language television channel entitled Canal 33 came on air unexpectedly, much to the surprise of large sectors of Catalan society, including the Catalan parliament, which had not been informed of the decision to launch the new channel. A number of reasons explain this unexpected appearance. One was plans developed by central television, TVE, to launch a Catalan-language channel of its own in October of that year (a channel which never, in fact, got off the ground). Another was the desire to offset the imminent arrival of the new private channels which it was quite correctly felt in Catalonia would have the effect of increasing the amount of Spanish-language television available to Catalans. The sudden launch of this new channel caused immediate tensions between the Catalan and Madrid governments, resulting a few days later in Madrid jamming transmission of the new channel. This situation continued for a further two months as a solution to the legal problems was

-93-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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