Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

c
Carr, R. and Fusi, J.P. (1979) Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, London: Allen & Unwin (chapter 6 includes an excellent account of Francoist culture and the changes it underwent after 1975).

g
Gubern, R. (1981) La censura: Función política y ordenamiento jurídico bajo el franquismo (1936-1975), Barcelona: Ediciones Península (an excellent and well-documented general study).

h
Hooper, J. (1995) The New Spaniards, Harmondsworth: Penguin (chapter 10 includes useful comments on censorship in the context of a general shift in social and moral attitudes).

EAMONN RODGERS


Centelles, Agustí

b. 1909, Grau (Valencia); d. 1985, Barcelona

Photographer

Centelles was very well-known in the 1930s for his direct, spare style, and for his very lively photo-journalism for newspapers such as La Vanguardia, Diario de Barcelona and La Humanitat. He had great skill with the miniature Leica, which enabled him to follow and photograph scenes of the Civil War. His personal archives are one of the most important documentary sources for the Republican period and the war years. His involvement on the Republican side forced him to go into exile in France in 1939, from where he returned in 1944 to concentrate mainly on commercial photography. In 1984 he received the National Prize for the Plastic Arts for his life’s work.

MIHAIL MOLDOVEANU


CEOE

The Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales (CEOE—Confederation of Employers Organizations) is the major national organization representing business interests in Spain. The CEOE plays an important role in the labour market and a more general role in shaping government policy, in forming public opinion, in vocational training and in Spanish culture. It also represents Spanish employers in international organizations and in other countries. Since its foundation in 1977 the CEOE has been a vehicle for expressing the conservative viewpoint, contributing to the shift in Spanish politics towards the centre in the mid-1990s.

The CEOE has a membership embracing both individual companies and other employers organizations. These include those representing employers in particular areas of the country (for example the Employers Federation of Andalusia), those representing specific economic sectors of the economy (such as the private banks) and those representing specific categories of businesses such as small and medium size businesses; the latter being represented by the Confederation of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (Confederación Española de Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas—CEPYME).

The ultimate ruling body of the CEOE is the General Assembly, composed of a large number of delegates, elected for four-year terms, representing all the organizations of the CEOE. The General Assembly elects a Chairperson and a Board of Directors, who in turn appoint the members of the Executive Committee. A number of ad-hoc advisory committees consider specific issues such as government budgets, taxation, the labour market, health and safety, infrastructure, energy and the European Union. There is a permanent secretariat to advise on, and co-ordinate the work of, the CEOE and to implement its policies.

The activities of the CEOE are, first, to represent the viewpoint of the business community in discussions with the government over public policy, including those which take place in the government’s Economic and Social Affairs Committee, and with the trade unions over collective wage agreements and working conditions. It undertakes research into issues affecting the business community and publishes reports. For example, the CEOE carries out on-going analyses of the Spanish economy in order to offer advice on enhancing the competitive position of Spanish companies. For its members the CEOE provides a forum for discussion and a source of business information. It also runs training courses and offers

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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