Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

a
Agawu-Kakraba, Y.B. (1996) Demythification in the Fiction of Miguel Delibes, New York: Peter Lang (a well documented study of some of the Francoist myths and how those myths are undermined).
Alonso de los Ríos, C. (1971) Conversaciones con Miguel Delibes, Madrid: Magisterio Español (based on conversation with Delibes, this work deals with issues that concern him in life and their representation in his novels).

d
Díaz, J.W. (1972) Miguel Delibes, New York: Twayne (provides biographical information on Delibes and analyses some of his novels and short stories).

r
Rey, A. (1975) La originalidad novelística de Miguel Delibes, Santiago de Compostela: Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (scrutinizes themes, style and the originality of Delibes’ artistic creation).

YAW AGAWU-KAKRABA


demographic indicators

In 1995 Spain had a population very close to 40 million. At 78 inhabitants per km2, its population density is well below those of France (103 per km2), Italy (192 per km2) or the UK (235 per km2), but the population is very unevenly spread. 60 percent of the country’s inhabitants are to be found in the periphery and the archipelagos, with only a few large population centres in the interior (Madrid, Zaragoza, Valladolid). Spain is highly urbanized: 50 percent of the population lives in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, or 80 percent if we include those of more than 50,000 inhabitants.

After strong population growth in the 1960s and 1970s there was a marked deceleration in the 1980s. The strong growth of the 1960s and early 1970s was due to both a high birth rate and a falling mortality rate. In the 1980s, however, the birth rate fell dramatically from a high point of twenty-two per thousand in 1960 to ten per thousand by 1991. In the late 1990s the fertility rate (average number of children born per woman), at 1.2, was the lowest in Europe. The fall in the fertility rate has been accompanied by a marked rise in the age at which women have children. As the mortality rate creeps up again because of the changing age structure of the population (by the year 2020 there are likely to be more Spaniards aged over 60 than under 16), the low fertility rate, if sustained, must mean a gradual decline in population. Nevertheless life expectancy at birth remains very high (78 years, higher than in most EU countries) and infant mortality is lower than ever and comparable to that across the EU, so both factors together should ensure population stability for several decades, although the potentially active population (16 to 64) will decline and the dependency ratio will rise. Population stability is also helped by the fact that immigration exceeds emigration (a reversal of the trend of the 1960s and early 1970s), but it is impossible to quantify because much of it is illegal (see also immigrants). Although legal foreign residents number just over half a million, the total figure is thought to be in the region of 800,000. Many of the illegal immigrants come from North Africa and the poorer countries of Latin America.


Further reading

d
De Miguel, A. (1992) La sociedad española 1992-93, Madrid: Alianza Editorial, pp. 35-147 (the first volume in a series based on yearly surveys; a highly useful sociological tool).

p
Puyol Antolín, R. (1988) La población española, Madrid: Editorial Síntesis (adopts a predominantly geographical or spatial approach to population questions).

v
V Informe sociológico sobre la situación social de España (1994) Madrid: Fundación FOESSA, vol. 1, pp. 145-413 (the most complete social survey of Spain and an indispensable source of sociological information).

C.A.LONGHURST


design

During the Franco dictatorship, when the climate was unfavourable to design, demand from industry was scant, and the few intellectuals who believed in progressive design, excluded as they were from political and economic influence, had to make a

-140-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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