Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

e
Ellwood, S. (1994) Franco, London and New York: Longman (an excellent, readable shorter study).

f
Fusi, J.P. (1985) Franco: Autoritarismo y poder personal, Madrid: Ediciones El País (a useful analysis by a leading Spanish contemporary historian).

p
Preston, P. (1993) Franco, London: Harper Collins (the standard and most comprehensive biography in English).

EAMONN RODGERS


Francoist culture

The cultural complexion of Franco’s Spain is one of the outcomes of the Civil War and its aftermath. The propaganda of the Francoist side fostered the notion that in overcoming the ‘red hordes’ they were also redressing the effects of two centuries of negative and alien influence deriving from the Enlightenment, nineteenth-century liberalism and modern democracy. The educational system and the media, heavily controlled by censorship, were therefore pressed into service to create an official culture which, in the eyes of the regime, would be truer to Spain’s authentic character and heritage. The title of the Ministry of National Education, which had been used since the early nineteenth century, took on a new force, the word ‘National’ denoting not only the territorial scope of the department’s activities, but also its mission to act as a channel of Nationalist ideology. One of the first acts of the new post-war Ministry was to establish, in November 1939, the CSIC (Higher Research Council), the aim of which was stated in its founding charter as ‘the restoration of the classic and Christian unity of the sciences, which was destroyed in the eighteenth century’.

The rhetoric of the regime was not, however, backed by resources sufficient to enable the government to patronize official culture on a large scale, and in this situation a key role was played by National Catholicism. Catholicism was seen not only as closely bound up with the current political system, but as the essence of Spanish nationality, and the unifying force which had made Spain great in the past. In iconography, architecture and historiography, pride of place was given to the symbols of imperial Spain. The titles of periodicals published by the Falange both during and after the Civil War illustrate this eloquently: Jerarquía (Hierarchy), Vértice (Apex), and above all, Escorial, which took its name from the huge monastery-palace built by Philip II. Historical research on the modern period was discouraged, and attention was paid primarily to the ‘Reconquest’ of Spain from the Moors in the late Middle Ages, the unification of the crowns of Castile and Aragon and the achievement of religious unifor-mity by the ‘Catholic monarchs’ Ferdinand and Isabella at the end of the fifteenth century, and the imperial expansion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Church influence on the content of teaching at all levels of the educational system was profound: conservative Catholic opposition to any attempt at liberalization could even bring about the dismissal of a Minister of Education, Joaquín Ruiz Giménez, in 1956.

The attempt to impose a distinctive Catholic-Nationalist culture, however, met with limited success. Though the secretive Catholic organization Opus Dei acquired considerable influence in the Higher Research Council, in practice the Council avoided becoming a crude instrument of government propaganda, and soon earned a well-merited reputation for supporting serious scholarly research. This illustrates the ambiguous nature of Francoist culture. On the one hand, many scholars active prior to the Civil War stayed on in Spain, and co-operated with the regime, partly because it was the only way in which they could function professionally (the alternatives being silence or exile), partly because the values manipulated by the regime (the glory of Spain in former times, the distinctiveness of the national character) made a powerful appeal to patriotic sentiment. At the same time, however, the international contacts necessary to effective research, coupled with the regime’s efforts to present a respectable face to the rest of the world, meant that the enterprise of creating a restrictive conception of national culture was ultimately doomed to failure. By the 1950s, promising young researchers were studying in the US and in various European countries.

Moreover, even within the permitted area of investigation, the application of rigorous scholarship had the effect of undermining the received

-206-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 594

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.