Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

c
Cruanyes, J. and Ortiz, R. (1986) Història de Catalunya, Barcelona: Jonc, pp. 75-6, 211-23, 227-31, 247-50 (deals with the foundation and subsequent development of the Generalitat within the general history of Catalonia).

DAVID GEORGE


Gil de Biedma, Jaime

b. 1929, Barcelona; d. 1990, Barcelona

Writer

Gil de Biedma is one of the best-known members of the ‘Generation of the 1950s’, also referred to as the ‘children of the Civil War’. Born into a wealthy Catalan family, he was a precocious child who witnessed the onset of the war, but, unlike others of his generation, he was whisked off to the family estate in Segovia where he would not suffer its ravages. As a young man he studied law in Barcelona, but became far more interested in literature, especially after a stay at Oxford in 1953. There he discovered the poets T.S. Eliot and W.H. Auden who would greatly influence his literary style.

In the same year, Gil de Biedma published his first book of poetry, Según sentencia del tiempo (According to Time’s Verdict). In 1955 the poet began his life-long career as an executive in the General Company of Filipino Tobacco and also published a translation of Eliot’s The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism; but a bout of tuberculosis was to take him to the family’s country estate in 1956, where he kept a diary that was published in 1974. Entitled Diario del artista seriamente enfermo (Diary of a Seriously Ill Artist), it describes the artist’s journey towards the mastery of his poetic style. Most of the poetry written during his convalescence can be found in the first section of his book Compañeros de viaje (Fellow Travellers), published in 1959. In the book he emphasizes his commitment to protest poetry. The political and literary activities he shared with his ‘fellow travellers’ are retold in his 1966 Moralidades (Moralities), where he also reveals himself to be an erotic poet. Two years later, in Poemas póstumos (Posthumous Poems), the poet reflects the disillusionment he grappled with because of the loss of youth and love. Most of his poetry was published in 1969 under the title Colección particular (Private Collection), but it was banned by the state censorship. A new edition entitled Las personas del verbo (The Personae of the Word) did not appear on bookshelves until the death of Franco in 1975.

In spite of Gil de Biedma’s small body of work, by the time he died of AIDS in 1990, he had become something of a cult figure among young Spanish poets. His interest in literary criticism and English literature, in both erotic and social themes, his ironic, self-deprecating, guilty tone, in addition to his intellectual stature and sophisticated life style, set him apart from his contemporaries and distinguished him as a wordly poet whom the younger generations wished to emulate.

See also: gay culture; gay writing; poetry


Further reading

m
Mangini González, S. (1980) Gil de Biedma, Madrid: Júcar (the first anthology and critical study of Gil de Biedma’s poetry).

r
Rovira, P. (1986) La poesía de Jaime Gil de Biedma, Barcelona: Mall (an essential study for understanding the poet’s work).

SHIRLEY MANGINI


Giménez Arnau, José Antonio

b. 1912, Laredo (Santander)

Writer

Novelist, playwright and career diplomat, Giménez Arnau usually treats psychological or moral crises, or deals with global political issues such as ‘Cold War’ allegiances, exile, intrigue or atomic holocaust (this aristocratic conservative served the Franco regime in several major international diplomatic posts). Major novels include La colmena (The Beehive) (1945), La hija de Jano (Janus’ Daughter) (1947), El puente (The Bridge) (1941), De pantalón largo (In Long Pants) (1952), Luna llena (Full Moon) (1953), El canto del gallo (Cock’s Crow) (1954), La tierra prometida (Promised Land) (1958), Este-Oeste

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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