Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

criticism and diaries and essays in both Spanish and Catalan.


Further reading

g
Gracia, J. (1994) ‘Preface’ to P. Gimferrer, Arde el mar, Madrid: Cátedra.

t
Terry, A. (1995) ‘Introduction’ to P. Gimferrer, Obra catalana complete I: Poesia (Complete Catalan Works: Poetry), Barcelona: Ediciones 62.

ARTHUR TERRY


golf

Since 1979, when Seve Ballesteros won the British Open, golf has attracted increasing numbers of players both from within Spain and from abroad. Within Spain it has become the third national sport in terms of the number of members of the Golfing Federation, partly as the result of a decrease in fees for most greens. At international level the world famous course at Valderrama in the province of Cadiz was host to the Ryder Cup in 1997, the first time it was played outside its traditional venues in the USA and the UK, and with over sixty courses in the area, more per square kilometre than anywhere else in Spain, and some of them able to be played by night, the Costa del Sol has justifiably been nicknamed the ‘Costa del Golf’. A record number of some 6,000 played on the greens each day in the 1996 season, bringing in huge revenues to the area, and as demand continues to outstrip provision, the tourist authorities of Costa del Sol and Andalusia are increasing and promoting the facilities they offer, especially as it is reckoned that each golfer has three times as much purchasing power as the average tourist.

International competitions held in Spain include the Spanish Open, the Turespaña Masters and various regional Opens such as those of Catalonia, the Balearics, Andalusia and the Canaries, and Spanish professional players such as Ballesteros and Olazábal have featured among the top world players and earners.

See also: sport and leisure

EAMONN RODGERS


golpismo

Golpismo, a tendency to engage in golpes or coups d’état, was the word used in the Spain of the 1970s and 1980s to designate the attitudes of hard-right elements in the armed forces towards the emergent democratic state. The armed forces had long been suspicious of civilian politicians, and regarded themselves as the ultimate arbiters of political development, reserving the right to intervene when events were taking a course of which they disapproved. The reluctance of successive governments during the transition to democracy to grasp the nettle of military subversion, combined with the failure of the intelligence services to keep the civil authorities informed about the existence of conspiracies against the state, encouraged the ‘ultras’ in the armed forces to believe that they could plot with impunity.

In addition to these political attitudes, certain general features of military culture fostered the golpista mentality. The networks of personal loyalty among those who had served together created strong bonds which extended not only through and across military units, but also linked these units to right-wing civilian groups. Furthermore, the command structure of the armed forces meant that small numbers of politically committed officers could mobilize large numbers of personnel, independently of whether those under their command shared their superiors’ views. It was reported at the time of the Tejerazo, for example, that the rank-and-file members involved did not know that their objective was the parliament building until they actually arrived there.

The ultra-right press, too, had a role in creating a climate favourable to a military take-over. The newspaper El Alcázar (The Citadel), whose main readership was composed of serving members of the armed forces, and whose editorial line was uncompromisingly anti-democratic, carried on a virulent campaign against the reforming Minister for Defence, Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado. In the months before the Tejerazo (between December 1980 and February 1981), the paper published a series of articles under the signature of the Colectivo Almendros (the Almond-Tree Group), advocating military intervention. It has been suggested that the reference to almond-trees was

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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