Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

(1959) is a charming picaresque tale of an innocently mischievous child’s early life and journey from his native village to Barcelona, describing various adventures along the way to the big city. With Narracions del Delta (Stories from the Delta) (1965) and other late writings, the author returns to Catalan and to themes of his childhood. Apart from his fiction and countless contributions to prestigious newspapers, Arbó is known as the biographer of Cervantes, Pío Baroja, Oscar Wilde and the nineteenth-century tragic priest Jacint Verdaguer, only the last of whom is directly reflected in his own writings.


Further reading

a
Alborg, J.L. (1962) Hora actual de la novela española, Madrid: Taurus, vol. 2, pp. 269-88 (a critical survey of Arbó’s work up to 1959).
Arnau, C. (1984) ‘Prologue’ to Terres de l’Ebre, Barcelona: Edicions 62 (a Catalan overview of Arbó’s work).

LEO HICKEY


Juan Carlos I

b. 1938, Rome

King of Spain

Juan Carlos de Borbón is the grandson of the last reigning monarch, Alfonso XIII, who left Spain on the declaration of the Republic in 1931, and abdicated in 1941 in favour of his son, Don Juan, Count of Barcelona. Don Juan was known to favour a restoration of the monarchy in its constitutional, pre-Civil War form, which meant that his relations with Franco were at best cool and often became strained. By an agreement reached in 1948 between Don Juan and Franco, Juan Carlos was sent to be educated in Spain, while his father continued to live in exile in Portugal. Don Juan would have preferred his son, on completing his secondary education, to go to a university elsewhere in Europe, but Franco wished him to have a military education. Juan Carlos accordingly spent four years at the Military Academy in Zaragoza, and graduated in 1959 with commissions in each of the three services. In 1962, he married Princess Sophia, daughter of King Paul and Queen Frederika of Greece.

The 1947 Succession Law had defined Spain as a monarchy governed by a regent, and had envisaged an eventual restoration of the monarchy on Franco’s demise, with the future Head of State having very considerable powers. It had also given Franco the right to nominate his successor, though by the time he was seventy in 1962 he had still not done so. It became obvious to the public, however, throughout the 1960s that Franco was grooming Juan Carlos to assume the role, which earned the prince considerable unpopularity on some of his travels around Spain when, on occasion, he and Sophia were pelted with overripe fruit. Eventually, in July 1969, Franco publicly nominated Juan Carlos as his successor, significantly withholding the title Prince of Asturias, traditionally held by the heir to the throne, and conferring instead the new title of Prince of Spain. This was to reinforce the point he had made both in article 11 of the Succession Law and in many public speeches, that the institution which succeeded him would not be a restoration of the previous constitutional monarchy, but a new one created by him (an instauración rather than a restauración).

The succession arrangements were not calculated to raise expectations of greater democratization after Franco, particularly when the appointment of the hard-line Carrero Blanco as Head of Government suggested that Franco’s intention was that Juan Carlos would continue to be controlled by a military strongman when he acceded to the throne. Although Juan Carlos was not widely credited with much political acumen in the last years of the regime, and though the assassination of Carrero Blanco in 1973 removed any hope of the survival of Francoism after Franco, the clear judgement and strength of character which Juan Carlos revealed after his accession suggest that he would not have allowed himself to be manipulated by a military hardliner. In any case, the Organic Law of the State (1967) had not only reinforced the succession provisions of the 1947 legislation, but had conferred wide executive functions on the Head of State, which in the event Juan Carlos was to use creatively to bring about reform. His choice of Torcuato Fernández-

-280-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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