Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

b
Bosque Maurel, J. (1973) ‘Latifundio y minifundio en Andalucía Oriental’, Estudios Geográficos, 132-3: 457-500 (a detailed discussion of latifundia and minifundia in eastern Andalusia).

k
King, R. (1973) Land Reform: the Italian Experience, London: Butterworth & Co (an interesting comparative study).

m
Malefakis, E. (1970) Agrarian reform and peasant revolution in Spain, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (deals with the political issue of land reform).

n
Naylon, J. (1973) ‘An Appraisal of Spanish Irrigation and Land Settlement Policy Since 1939’, Iberian Studies, 2, 1: 12-18.

KEITH SALMON


Landa, Alfredo

b. 1933, Pamplona (Navarre)

Actor

In his career as a film actor Landa has worked for a wide variety of directors including, in the 1970s and 1980s, Bardem in El Puente (The Long Weekend) (1976), Garci in El crack (The Crack) (1981), Camus in Los santos inocentes (The Holy Innocents) (1984), and Patino in Los paraísos perdidos (The Lost Paradises) (1985). In the 1990s he has appeared in films and television productions such as El Quijote (1991), Cuerda’s La marrana (The Pig) (1992), for which he won the 1993 Goya Prize for best actor, the 1993 television series Lleno par favor (Full Up), and Gutiérrez Aragón’s El rey del río (King of the River) (1995). He was awarded the Gold Medal for Fine Arts in 1992.

See also: film and cinema

EAMONN RODGERS


language and education

Given the different sociolinguistic circumstances surrounding each of Spain’s minority languages, attempts to increase their educational status have varied according to circumstance. Perhaps the most complex response has been that of the autonomous community, faced with the lowest proportion of proficient speakers and the greatest linguistic distance between Basque and Spanish.

Despite Franco’s prohibition of minority languages, in the 1960s a number of Basque-medium schools (ikastolas) were set up clandestinely and in the 1970s these came to be tolerated by the regime. However, real efforts both to introduce Basque to the curriculum and to increase its use as medium of instruction did not start until the enactment of the constitution of 1978. In addition to the prevailing situation in which Basque did not figure anywhere in the curriculum (unofficially referred to as Model X), three new models of education were offered from 1979-80 onwards: Model A (instruction in Spanish with Basque as a subject); Model B (some subjects delivered in Spanish and some in Basque); and Model D (instruction in Basque with Spanish as a subject). While initially some 75 percent of pupils continued to be taught according to Model X with a small fraction receiving instruction through Basque, by the end of the 1980s Model X had virtually disappeared and by the mid-1990s Model A accounted for less than half of the intake. Indeed, Model A may disappear entirely from the province of Guipuzcoa by the year 2000. In the Basque-speaking areas of Navarre progress has been less marked and the autonomous community makes provision for what is called Model G (the equivalent of Model X).

In Catalonia, since the 1978 constitution, the Generalitat has followed a robust policy of promoting Catalan as the medium of instruction. There has been rapid Catalanization of both public and private education, supported by massive investments in materials creation and teacher retraining. One of the most successful innovations has been immersion in Catalan, an idea adopted from French Canada and implemented from pre-school education onwards. Furthermore, Catalan has been adopted as official language of the main universities and while members of staff may opt to give classes in the language of their choice, this is increasingly Catalan. In the autonomous communities of Valencia and the Balearics, progress has been much less swift, partly due to a lack of political will and partly, in the case of Valencia, due to a reluctance, for reasons of linguistic and

-292-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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