Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

although it was drained of political significance, it had appropriated for itself a huge budget employed, usually in a very corrupt fashion, in the areas of state welfare, housing, and local administration. In the process it had also acquired substantial properties, originally forcibly expropriated from the democratic unions of the Republic, and dispersed again within the state bureaucracy when the Movimiento was finally abolished in 1977 as part of Spain’s transition to democracy.


Further reading

e
Ellwood, S. (1987) Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era, London: MacMillan (the only book to date which deals with the institutions of the regime).

MICHAEL RICHARDS


national radio

The first state radio network in Spain, Radio National de España, was set up by Franco in 1937, during the Civil War, to counter the propaganda efforts of broadcasting stations on the Republican side. During the period of his dictatorship, RNE functioned essentially as the mouthpiece of the state, and exercised a virtual monopoly, though particular interest groups such as the National Movement, the vertical syndicates, and the Roman Catholic Church were permitted to operate their own networks. RNE’s monopoly was ended by the new democratic government in 1977, but it continued to occupy a commanding position, since excessive competition for space on the airwaves forced the administration to curtail the number of medium-wave networks. In 1988, RNE absorbed Radio Cadena Española, the network which grouped the stations formerly owned by the National Movement and the syndicates.

RNE runs two medium-wave channels, Radio 1, mainly broadcasting general interest and current affairs material, and Radio 5, a sports and entertainment channel with local variations. It also has two FM services, Radio 2, mainly offering classical music, and Radio 3, devoted to rock and pop music. Radio 1 commands by far the highest number of listeners, 1.5 million, nearly twice that of Radio 5, and more five times that of Radios 2 and 3 together. Its programmes produced for the home market, and some specially made ones, are broadcast worldwide on its short-wave service, Radio Exterior de España.

Within Spain, however, RNE’s listener base has steadily declined since 1988, from 3.5 million to 2.6 million in 1997, a fall of 25 percent. This contrasts with the other major networks, SER, COPE and Onda Cero, all of which have increased their number of listeners.

See also: media

EAMONN RODGERS


NATO

The international ostracism of Spain by democratic states after WWII meant that Spain was not included in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization when it was established in 1949. Though Franco himself was favourable to membership, Britain and France were opposed, as was US President Truman. Opposition in the US was soon eroded, however, by the interest of the military establishment in having a reliable ally against the threat of Soviet expansion during the Cold War. As early as 1948, the State Department broached the question of establishing a military presence in Spain, and by 1953 the American bases agreement had been signed. This bilateral arrangement was the only feasible one, given the continued hostility to the Franco regime of most of the European members of NATO, and the issue of membership did not become active again until 1981.

It was internal politics, rather than global strategic considerations, which prompted the centre-right UCD government under Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo to speed up the negotiations for NATO membership. The attempted military coup of February 1981, known as the Tejerazo, had convinced the government of the need to provide the armed forces with improved equipment, resources, career opportunities, and, above all, to foster greater professionalism and a sense of

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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