Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

See also: transport


Further reading

m
Martin Aceña, P., Comín, M., Muñoz Rubio, M. and Vidal Olivares, J. (1998) 150 Años de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, 2 vols, Madrid: Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles (history of Spanish railways from 1848 to 1998).

b
Boag, G.L. (1923) The Railways of Spain, London: The Railway Gazette (covers their development up to the early twentieth century).

i
Izquierdo, R. (1993) ‘Breve evolución histórica del ferrocarril en España’, Situación 3/4: 7-19,Bilbao: Banco Bilbao Vizcaya.

w
Wais, F. (1987) Historia de los ferrocarriles españoles, 3rd edn, vols 1 and 2, Madrid: Editora Nacional por la Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles (a detailed account of the development of the railways can be found here and in publications by Renfe).

KEITH SALMON


Raimon

b. 1940, Xàtiva (Community of Valencia)

Singer and songwriter (pseudonym of Ramon Pelegero i Sanchis)

Raimon was one of the leading exponents of the Nova Cançó. His 1962 song Al vent (To the Wind) was a landmark in the development of the movement.

DAVID GEORGE


Ramírez, Pedro J.

b. 1952, Logroño

Journalist

After a degree in journalism at the University of Navarre, and a period teaching in the US, Ramírez worked initially on the magazine La Actualidad Española, subsequently joining the editorial staff of ABC, and was also the Madrid correspondent of the Barcelona evening paper El Noticiero Universal. Between 1980 and 1989 he was Editor-in-Chief of Diario 16, and succeeded in almost tripling its sales. In 1989, however, he was dismissed after a dispute with the board about editorial style. He immediately co-founded a new paper, El Mundo del Siglo XXI, usually referred to as El Mundo, to which he managed to entice many of his former colleagues, and which by 1993 had reached sales of 200,000, placing it third in importance behind El País and ABC.

Ramírez has been determined to turn El Mundo into a lively investigative newspaper with a sharp nose for corruption, and has persistently harassed government figures, notably over the GAL case. He was often presented in other publications as carrying on what amounted to a personal crusade against Felipe González.

See also: journalism; poderes fácticos; press

EAMONN RODGERS


Raphael

b. 1946, Linares (Jaén)

Singer

At the age of 16, Rafael Martos arrived at the studio of his present manager in search of fame and fortune and this was start of his artistic career. His preciousness earned him the sobriquet El niño de Linares (The boy from Linares). He performed in the most prestigious international song festivals and at the peak of his career he played the lead in five successful films. Raphael’s histrionic and impas-sioned delivery has spawned generations of imitators.

See also: rock and pop

FERNANDO DELGADO


readership

Despite the buoyancy of the publishing industry and the vast improvement in levels of literacy, the level of readership in Spain is the lowest in Europe, both of books (around 50 percent of population) and of newspapers (in the mid 1990s, 105 copies

-436-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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