Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

See also: transport


References

m
MOPTMA (1994) Plan Director de Infraestructuras, 1993-2007, 2nd edn, Madrid (MOPTA is the Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente—the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Environment).

Further reading

t
Tamames, R. Estructura económica de España, Madrid: Alianza Editorial (a discussion of the development of roads and road policy is available in each of the editions).

KEITH SALMON


Roca i Junyent, Miquel

b. 1940, Cauderan (France)

Politician

Miquel Roca comes from a family with a strong political tradition. He was born while they were living in exile from the Franco regime, although they returned to Barcelona one year after Roca’s birth. He is a law graduate of Barcelona University, and defended people imprisoned under Franco. He lectured at Barcelona University, before being expelled in 1967 because of his political activity. He was a founding member of the centre-right nationalist coalition CiU in 1974, and was its General Secretary from 1989 to 1996. He was President of the Catalan parliamentary group in Madrid from 1977 to 1994. After failing to be elected Mayor of Barcelona in 1995, he became President of the Municipal Group of CiU in Barcelona. He is also the head of a law firm in Barcelona.


Further reading

c
Cortés, J.M. (1996) ‘Miquel Roca: abogado y político’, El País Negocios, 21 April 1996 (interview with Roca).

DAVID GEORGE


rock and pop

The trajectory of rock and pop music in Spain is a reflection of political and social circumstances. Until the 1950s popular music mainly consisted of songs with folk roots: cuplés and flamenco, as an expression of the Nationalist spirit promoted by the Francoist regime. Radio stations on American military bases were in large part responsible for introducing rock and pop music to Spain, playing records which, owing to socio-political constraints, were new to the majority of the Spanish audience. In the 1950s Spanish versions of Paul Anka or Elvis Presley tracks, sung by artists like El Dúo Dinámico began to appear. Covers of film tracks, recorded by stars like Gloria Lasso, became immensely popular. However, it was ballads, like those performed by José Guardiola, which triumphed in the commercial market.

In the 1960s modern music established a firm foothold in Spain, and this decade was rich in songs which later became classics of popular music. The groups that formed in the 1960s often copied what was happening in other countries. Spain had its own version of The Platters called Los 5 Latinos, and Los Mustang tried to emulate the distinctive sounds of the Beatles. With a few notable exceptions, for instance Raphael, solo artists made way for groups like Los Brincos and Los Bravos. Music festivals and guateques (dances) also became popular in this period.

The 1970s saw the return of solo artists, with strong vocal abilities and huge followings, including Niño Bravo, Camilo Sexto and Juan Bau. This was also the decade of singer-songwriters with committed political affiliations, like Joan Manual Serrat and Cecilia. After 1975 censorship rules were relaxed, and songs with overt socio-political messages proliferated, for example Jarcha’s hit Libertad sin ira (Freedom Without Rage). Another tendency to emerge at this time was progressive rock exemplified by the music of Medina Azahara. The permissive society of the late 1970s gave rise to the birth of the so-called ‘new wave’ as a reaction against progressive rock. Tequila and Ramoncín typified the aggressive attitude of this movement, and they revolutionized the music scene with their electric guitar playing, short tracks and direct lyrics.

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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