Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Further reading

d
D’Lugo, M. (1991) The Films of Carlos Saura; the Practice of Seeing, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

s
Sánchez Vidal, A. (1988) El cine de Carlos Saura, Zaragoza: Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada.

PETER WILLIAM EVANS


science

Scientific activity in Spain has traditionally suffered from chronic under-resourcing, as well as from the tendency to regard universities as primarily teaching, rather than research institutions. Since the mid-1980s, however, there has been a great increase in scientific output, reflected in higher levels of investment, a larger volume of publications, and a higher number of personnel involved in research. In the decade to 1994, the number of research scientists and engineers doubled, rising to 42,000. By the same date, total investment in research, the bulk of which was directed to science and technology, increased five-fold in absolute terms. The Science Law (1986), which set up a framework to co-ordinate the activities of the various bodies involved in scientific research, was followed in 1988 by the first three-year National Plan for Scientific Research and Technological Development. This was an attempt to improve recruitment and training of research personnel, as well as co-ordinating research in agriculture and food science, technology and communication, bioscience, and a category called special programmes, which includes high-energy physics. The third of these national plans was approved in 1995, to run from 1996 to 1999, with a budget of 100,000m pesetas ($794m).

Simultaneously with greater investment, there has been an effort to improve conditions for research workers. It was announced in 1996 that the existing three-year contracts for those employed by CSIC was to be extended to five years, with a possible renewal for a further five. Concern has nevertheless been expressed by the scientific community at the scale of the ‘brain drain’ of Spanish-trained researchers, and of the difficulty experienced by those trained abroad in finding employment when they return to Spain. Many of the most distinguished scientists produced in Spain this century have made their reputations abroad, most notably Severo Ochoa (1905-88), who won the Nobel Prize in 1959 for work in biology carried out in the US. High quality work is nevertheless being carried out in universities and research institutes in Spain, as evidenced by the award of the Prince of Asturias Prize in 1995 to Manuel Losada of the University of Seville for work on the photosynthesis of nitrogen, and of the National Research Prize to a geneticist, Antonio García Bellido, of the Centre for Molecular Biology, a joint body of the Autonomous University of Madrid and CSIC.

Despite this overall increase in investment and activity, questions were raised in 1996 about the commitment of the state to scientific development, in view of the fact that the PP government elected in March of that year had renamed the former Ministry of Education and Science the Ministry of Education and Culture. A group of leading scientists meeting at their annual summer school in El Escorial published a statement urging that science should continue to be a major government responsibility. Moreover, the objective set by the previous PSOE government to increase investment in scientific research to 1 percent of GDP by 1990 has not been met. As a proportion of GDP, spending on research and development has remained static at 0.9 percent, which is less than half the European average.

Scientific research in Spain has benefited considerably from involvement in European programmes, particularly the Fourth Research and Development Framework Programme scheduled for the period 1994-8. In 1994, Spain had an 8 percent share in programmes run by the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN), a 4 percent participation in the European Space Agency, and a 6 percent share in the European Science Foundation.

See also: education and research; intellectual life; universities; university education


Further reading

s
Spain 1995 (1995) Madrid: government publication,

-471-

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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