Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

state prosecutor. Generals Alfonso Armada and Jaime Milans del Bosch, and Colonel Tejero received sentences of 30 years each, but Armada and Milans were released, in 1988 and 1992 respectively, on grounds of age and good conduct. The failure of the attempted coup led to an upsurge of renewed popular support for democracy, and helped to overcome the sense of disillusionment with the state which had set in around 1979, caused by continuing economic problems and terrorism. The other effect of the coup was that it encouraged the government of Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo to speed up the negotiations for Spain’s entry into NATO, a process which eventually produced increased professionalism and depoliticization of the armed forces.


Further reading

c
Carr, R. and Fusi, J.P. (1979) Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, London: Allen & Unwin (a thorough and scholarly account of the transition to democracy).

n
Newton, M.T. with Donaghy, P.J. (1997) Institutions of Modern Spain: A Political and Economic Guide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (a standard reference work).

p
Preston, P (1986) The Triumph of Democracy in Spain, London: Methuen (a lively account of the issues and personalities involved in the political developments of contemporary Spain).

EAMONN RODGERS


Tejero Molina, Antonio

b. 1932, Spain

Paramilitary police officer

Tejero Molina was an obscure Civil Guard officer who came to prominence in the right-wing coup of 1981, the Tejerazo, to which his name was attached, and for which he was sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment. From September 1993, he benefitted from an ‘open regime’ which meant he was allowed home at weekends and could leave the prison between 8 a.m. and midnight on other days. Though he refused to give an undertaking to respect the constitution of 1978, in December 1996, having completed half his sentence, with five years’ remission for good behaviour, he was deemed to have served three-quarters of his term, and qualified for release.

EAMONN RODGERS


telephones

The Compañía Telefónica de España S.A. is Spain’s largest single company by turnover and the biggest employer by a considerable margin. It has long been a favourite with investors. The state has a 20 percent shareholding and the remainder is in the hands of institutional shareholders (including the major banks) and tens of thousands of small investors. Because of EU rules, Telefónica had to lose its monopoly, and a second fixed-line telecommunications company, Retevisión, was set up in 1997, with investment from the Italian telecoms company Stet. In view of the complete liberalization of the telecommunications market planned for late 1998, and the inevitable increase in competition (which already existed in certain areas such as mobile phones and data transmission), Telefónica made large investments in the upgrade and extension of its services by introducing digital exchanges and fibre optic cables, and drastically reduced the waiting list for new lines. The traditional price structure, with expensive trunk and international calls subsidizing cheap local calls, was reviewed, and the new tariff system is expected to bring charges more into line with those of other operators. With under 50 telephones per 100 inhabitants in Spain (compared to between 60 and 70 in France or Germany) there is considerable scope for growth. The mobile phone market, with less than half a million subscribers in the mid-1990s (compared to six million in the UK), has shown very rapid expansion, rising to an estimated 14 percent in 1998, with market penetration reaching EU levels. A number of consortia, of which Airtel is the best known (made up of Airtouch, BT and two Spanish banks), are active in this area as well as in that of data transmission. For its part, Telefónica, through its international arm, Tisa, has turned to the potentially lucrative

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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