Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Latin American market and is the biggest foreign operator there, an activity that makes an important contribution to the company’s healthy profits. In 1997, Telefónica bought out the state’s 23.8 percent holding in Tisa, and acquired complete control of the subsidiary. It also owns 30.8 percent of the telecommunications undertaking in Colombia, and 43.6 percent of its Chilean counterpart.


Further reading

c
Chislett, W. (1998) Spain: The Central Hispano Handbook, Madrid: Central Hispano (see pp. 66-9 for a succinct account of Telefónica’s development).

C.A.LONGHURST


television

Spanish television has come a long way since first going on air in the mid-1950s. Having been closely controlled—indeed censored—by the Franco regime for the first twenty years of its existence, it shared in the freedoms of democracy from the mid-1970s on. It has also lost its status as a state monopoly with the arrival of three new national commercial stations in the late 1980s, and has been decentralized even further with the creation of a number of regional channels in different autonomous communities.

Spain’s first television channel, Televisión de España (TVE) first started broadcasting on 28 October 1956, sending only three hours of programming daily to some 600 receivers in Madrid, and being extended to Barcelona in 1958. Funding from advertising—through sponsorship of programmes—was introduced in 1958, and, alone of European countries, Spain has never levied a television licence fee. The second channel (TVE2) was introduced in September 1965, initially in Barcelona and Zaragoza, but, like the first channel (now renamed TVE1), quickly spread to cover the entire country.

Like all other public institutions dealing in ideas and information—the press, cinema, the theatre—television was closely controlled by state censorship during the Franco dictatorship. This control was most obvious in news and related kinds of broadcasts, but in fact affected television output as a whole. The result was that many Spaniards took a very jaundiced view of their television service, particularly as regards its information-providing services, which were rightly seen as little more than a mouthpiece for the regime.

Following the death of Franco in 1975 and the transition to a democratic system over the following two years, Spanish Television was given an entirely new statute in December 1978. Although this new statute stated that Spanish Television was to be subject to commercial law in its external relations, it nevertheless did not completely abolish political influence in the running of the company: the members of the board of governors were to be elected by the Spanish parliament, and the director-general was appointed for a five-year term by the government. As a result of this, widespread suspicions remained in the years following the move to democracy that Spanish Television was still essentially controlled by the party in power, and there were high levels of public mistrust, particularly in the early 1980s.

The monopoly status of TVE could not, however, survive indefinitely. As the 1980s wore on, it was in fact undermined from two different directions. The first of these was the appearance of regional television stations in a number of Spain’s autonomous communities. The first of these to go on air was the Basque television channel (ETB) in 1982, followed by the first Catalan television channel (TV3) in 1983. Subsequently, further regional stations to appear were Television de Galicia in Galicia (broadcasting in Galician) in 1985, and Canal Sur in Andalusia, Telemadrid in Madrid and Canal 9 in Valencia (broadcasting in Catalan), all in 1989. During the same period both ETB and Catalan Television went on to add second channels in their respective communities. These regional channels, which have their own programming and purchasing policies, can attract very sizeable audiences, and are often the most popular channels in their particular community, particularly where they broadcast in a language other than Spanish. In 1989 they joined together to form FORTA (the Federation of Autonomous Radio and Television Organizations) in order to increase their collective strength.

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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