Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

W

water supply

Water is critical for domestic consumption and for sustaining economic activity in Spain, particularly agriculture, which accounts for 80 percent of water demand. Increasing demand, coupled with periods of drought, has led to the realization that water is a scarce resource requiring careful management: ensuring supplies, regulating demand, balancing conflicting uses, and monitoring environmental impact.

There are significant variations in water supply. In the north of Spain there is a surplus, with average annual precipitation in excess of 1,000 mm a year. Across the rest of Spain there is a deficit, owing to low annual average precipitation (varying from less than 600 mm to true desert conditions in the south-east) and substantial water loss resulting from high summer temperatures. Actual precipitation varies from year to year, including droughts where in successive years annual precipitation falls below the average. One such drought occurred between 1990 and 1995, creating serious social, economic and political problems. Crop yields and agricultural employment fell; costs of electricity generation rose as supply was lost from low-cost hydroelectric plant; drinking water was rationed; and the governments of the autonomous communities argued over water resources.

Water demand has risen with population growth, the rise in tourism and the increased emphasis on irrigated agriculture. Moreover, these three factors have been most prominent outside of the north of Spain, creating further imbalances in supply and demand.

Responsibilities for water management are shared between the state, regional governments, local authorities and some private utilities. At the strategic level the regions are responsible for co-ordinating water developments. However, water management has developed around public river basin authorities (Confederaciones Hidrográficas), which often span different regions. River basin authorities tap surface and underground water supplies, store water underground or in reservoirs, transport water to areas of consumption and frequently treat the water ready for use. Local authorities are generally responsible for local distribution and supply to individual consumers. In Barcelona, water supply is in the hands of the largest water company in Spain, Aguas de Barcelona. More private and foreign capital will enter the industry as the business environment of water supply is liberalized.

Development of water resources depends on the legal arrangements governing use. Until 1985 subterranean water was regarded as part of land ownership, while surface water belonged to the state. This enabled Spain to produce a national water policy, become a pioneer in the management of its rivers and to develop hydroelectric installations. But soaring demand, new pumping techniques and modern knowledge about the water cycle connecting underground and surface water made the old law obsolete. The new law of 1985 included underground water in the public domain (although it left existing wells in private ownership and protected the rights of well owners).

Several critical issues are associated with water supply in Spain, principally that of ensuring

-545-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 594

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.