Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture

By Eamonn Rodgers; Valerie Rodgers | Go to book overview

Z

Zabaleta, Nicanor

b. 1907, San Sebastián; d. 1993, Puerto Rico

Harpist

After studies in San Sebastián and Madrid, Zabaleta went to Paris, studying the harp with Marcel Tournier, and composition with Marcel Samuel Rousseau and Eugene Cools. Zabaleta has arguably done more than any other musician this century to revive and promote interest in the harp as a solo instrument and establish its repertoire, rescuing forgotten compositions for harp by Cabezón, Bach, Handel and Beethoven. He even contributed design innovations, developing an eight-pedal version of the harp. Composers as diverse as Rodolfo Halffter, Joaquín Rodrigo (who arranged his guitar concerto, Concierto de Aranjuez, for the harp at Zabaleta’s request), Darius Milhaud and Villa-Lobos have written works specially for performance by him. Zabaleta continued to perform into the 1970s with orchestras all over the world, in Israel, Warsaw, London, Berlin, Salzburg and Philadelphia. His farewell concert tour took place in 1988, when he was 80, and included concerts in Paris, Naples, Palermo, Tel Aviv and Madrid. In 1982, he was awarded the National Prize for Music in recognition of his contribution.

EAMONN RODGERS


Zambrano, María

b. 1904, Vélez-Málaga; d. 1991, Madrid

Philosopher

In 1988, Zambrano became the first woman and first philosopher to receive the Cervantes Prize. Influenced by her father, a noted liberal pedagogue and socialist thinker, she lived from childhood at the centre of educational reform, later obtaining her doctorate with Spain’s major philosophers—José Ortega y Gasset, Xavier Zubiri, Manuel García Morente—and participating in pro-Republican political activities which inspired her first book, Horizonte del liberalismo (Horizons of Liberalism). Later works emphasize ‘pure’ philosophical inquiry rather than politics, but she remained true to the ideals of pacifism, humanitarian socialism and freedom.

Los intelectuales en el drama de España (Intellectuals in Spain’s Drama) is partly autobiographical, but forty-five years of post-war exile leave little imprint on her writing. Even such wartime works as Pensamiento y poesía en la vida española (Thought and Poetry in Spanish Life) and Filosofía y poesía (Philosophy and Poetry) reflect little of contemporary reality, but seek to elucidate similarities and differences between the two genres: she envisages philosophy as search and method, poetry as encounter. La agonía de Europa (Europe’s Agony) does, however, reflect the global crisis of WWII. Hacia un saber sobre el alma (Towards Knowledge of the Soul) initiates lifelong metaphysical preoccupations, pursued in El hombre y lo divino (Humanity and the Divine), where she applies the method of

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction x
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Structure xiii
  • Architecture xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 7
  • Further Reading 11
  • Further Reading 29
  • Further Reading 37
  • Further Reading 41
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 47
  • Further Reading 65
  • C 70
  • Further Reading 81
  • Further Reading 93
  • Further Reading 100
  • Further Reading 113
  • Further Reading 128
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 136
  • Further Reading 140
  • E 152
  • Further Reading 155
  • Further Reading 166
  • Further Reading 171
  • F 173
  • Further Reading 185
  • Further Reading 206
  • G 213
  • Further Reading 227
  • Further Reading 229
  • Further Reading 231
  • Further Reading 242
  • H 245
  • I 261
  • Further Reading 266
  • J 276
  • Further Reading 280
  • K 283
  • L 285
  • Further Reading 292
  • M 313
  • Further Reading 332
  • Further Reading 335
  • N 359
  • Further Reading 362
  • Further Reading 365
  • O 376
  • P 384
  • Further Reading 429
  • Q 430
  • R 433
  • Further Reading 435
  • Further Reading 436
  • Further Reading 439
  • Further Reading 443
  • References 452
  • S 464
  • Further Reading 471
  • Further Reading 475
  • T 502
  • Further Reading 508
  • Further Reading 509
  • U 526
  • Further Reading 536
  • V 537
  • Further Reading 538
  • Further Reading 539
  • Further Reading 544
  • W 545
  • X 550
  • Y 552
  • Further Reading 553
  • Z 554
  • Index 557
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