Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy

By Mark Dooley; Richard Kearney | Go to book overview

11

THE PROBLEM OF JUSTICE IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY

The response of discourse ethics

Karl-Otto Apel

Globalization and multiculturalism as a moral problem

It seems to me that globalization, i.e. planetary intertwinement of human relations on the levels of technology, economics and politics, in our day is an indisputable fact. And, in my opinion, it is an historically irreversible fact as well. This does not mean that those people are wrong who point to very problematical aspects of the recent development of globalization, especially with regard to the global order of the market-led economy, which—notwithstanding its efficiency—seems to result in a growing polarization between the rich and the poor. 1 However, as it seems to me, there is no reasonable option towards a turn or roll back of the technological, economical and political development of globalization. There is only the serious problem of how to deal with, i.e. to respond to, the challenge of globalization on the levels of culture, morality and a morally inspired reorganization of law.

One of the most comprehensive and important aspects of the secondary globalization that is required in our day seems to consist in the organization of human relationships in the way of a multicultural society. The indispensability of such an order on the global level—on the level of cosmopolitan law—seems to be evident and incontestable; 2 but the cosmopolitan order of law for the peaceful coexistence and cooperation of all the different ethnic and religious communities, I suggest, must also become the paradigm of the organization of all constitutional states; rather than, for example, the nationalistic demand for ethnic purge or the fanatic call for unification in the sense of religious fundamentalism.

However, the conception of multiculturalism in our day still meets with enraged resistance not only from the side of extreme nationalism or fundamentalism but also from the side of the inhabitants of national states, in

-145-

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Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Hermeneutics 3
  • 1 - Memory and Forgetting 5
  • 2 - Imagination, Testimony and Trust 12
  • 3 - Narrative and the Ethics of Remembrance 18
  • References 32
  • 4 - The Politics of Memory 33
  • 5 - Ethics and Lifeworlds 44
  • Part II - Deconstruction 63
  • 6 - Hospitality, Justice and Responsibility 65
  • Notes 83
  • 7 - Reason, History, and a Little Madness 84
  • 8 - The Experience of the Ethical 105
  • 9 - The Ethics of Exclusion 120
  • Notes 130
  • Part III - Critical Theory 133
  • 10 - Three Normative Models of Democracy 135
  • 11 - The Problem of Justice in a Multicultural Society 145
  • Notes 161
  • 12 - Enlightenment and the Idea of Public Reason 164
  • 13 - Paradigms of Public Reason 181
  • Part IV - Psychoanalysis 199
  • 14 - In the Name-Of-The-Father 201
  • 15 - Revolt Today? 220
  • 16 - The Original Traumatism 230
  • Part V - Applications 243
  • 17 - Some Enlightenment Projects Reconsidered 245
  • 18 - Questioning Autonomy 258
  • 19 - From Ethics to Bioethics 283
  • Index 294
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